Literary Passports: The Making of Modernist Hebrew Fiction in Europe. Shachar M. Pinsker. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2010. Pp. xiv + . $60.00 (cloth).
Diasporic Modernisms: Hebrew & Yiddish Literature in the Twentieth Century. Allison Schachter. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. Pp. x + . $35.00 (cloth).
Reconfiguring Surrealism in Modern Hebrew Literature: Menashe Levin, Yitzhak Oren and Yitzhak Orpaz. Giulia Miller. London: Vallentine Mitchell Publishers, 2013. Pp. $84.95 (cloth).
All three scholars demonstrate that Hebrew modernist fiction, no matter where it was being written, shared some common literary and cultural ideals. The writers “advocated the departure from a socially and historically grounded mimesis towards a portrayal of the ‘hidden’ realities of human existence, to engage with universal (and modernist) concerns such as sexuality, religiosity, existential angst and related themes.” Experimentation in Hebrew literature was not simply tied up with Zionism and the creation of a national homeland, but also reflected a broader and more complex history that valued the power of language to articulate a modern, cosmopolitan Jewish experience. By contextualizing Hebrew modernist writing within European, American and Native American cultural history, and tracing the development of modernism in Israel, wherein it was vastly neglected, all three works raise new questions about the role of place, thought and language in the life of the movement.
A political trial, according to Steven E. Barkan, is a trial revolving
around highly publicized legal controversies. In some cases, such a
trial may determine fundamental political questions, exceeding the legal
realm, which are in debate inside a given polity. The 1957–58 trial
related to the 1956 massacre in Kafr Qasim, Israel certainly belongs to
this category. The trial established the doctrine of a “manifestly
unlawful order” in Israeli military law, contributed considerably to the
reshaping of civil–military relations, and influenced the civic status
of the Arab minority in Israel. In this article, using hitherto
underexamined primary sources, I argue that the most important
contribution of the trial, the doctrine of a “manifestly unlawful
order,” was not only a creation of the bench but also a result of a
complicated interaction between the actors present in the courtroom: the
defendants, their defense lawyers, the prosecutors, and the judges.
Above all, the article shows how the bitter struggle between the two
main attorneys helped shape the doctrine of a “manifestly unlawful
order,” that is, an order that is illegal for a soldier to obey.