Pozzi, P.S., and G. L. Alborali. “Animal Welfare Regulations for Swine Keeping in Israel: A Comparison with the EU Directive 120 of 2008 ‘Laying Down Minimum Standards for the Protection of Pigs’.” Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine 71.1 (2016): 10-14.
In February 2015, Israel approved the new Animal Welfare Law – Animal Protection – “Regulations for Swine Keeping for Agricultural Purposes”, which was implemented since May 2015. In comparison with European Union (EU) Legislation on swine protection (Council Directive 2008/120/EC of 18 December 2008), Israeli Regulations are ameliorative in terms of reduction of days in insemination stalls for gilts and sows; reduction of days in restraint during lactation; available floor area to each animal; pain management and relief in the course of castration, tail docking and corner-teeth clipping.
Horev, L., M. Isaksson, M. Engfeldt, L. Persson, A. Ingber, and M. Bruze. “Preservatives in Cosmetics in the Israeli Market Conform Well to the EU Legislation.” Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 29.4 (2015): 761-6.
Preservatives are important and frequent skin sensitizers, found in a wide range of products for personal and occupational use. According to the European legislation, some cosmetic ingredients are restricted in terms of quantity and a detailed list of ingredients must be present on the product or packaging.
To examine the use of preservatives in common cosmetics on the Israeli market.
Sixty different Israeli brand cosmetics, including shampoos, liquid soaps, body creams and hand creams were randomly selected. Ingredient labels were examined. The products were investigated by the chromotropic acid method for release of formaldehyde and by high performance liquid chromatography for the presence of formaldehyde, DMDM hydantoin and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) and MI content.
All products but one contained a detailed list of ingredients printed on the package. According to labelling, the most prevalent preservatives in Israeli shampoos and liquid soaps were DMDM hydantoin and MCI/MI. Hand creams and body creams contained mainly parabens but also iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, phenoxyethanol and DMDM hydantoin. Formaldehyde in doses from 4 to 429 ppm, and DMDM hydantoin were detected in 38 and 16 (63% and 27%) of the products, respectively. MCI/MI was detected in 11 (18%) of the products, with highest prevalence in rinse- off products (55%). Excluding one hand cream which measured 106 ppm MI, the amount of formaldehyde, DMDM hydantoin, MCI/MI and MI was within the allowed concentrations by the European directive in all cases.
In Israel, adaptation of the European directive prevails, as shown by the measurements we performed on randomly selected products.
eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) is a language for the electronic communication of business and financial data which is revolutionizing business reporting around the world. It is a tool to bridge potential language barriers and unify financial reporting. This has appeal to foreign investors, among others, who can rely on information in XBRL-tagged financial reports to make investment decisions without having to translate financial statements from local language. In 2008, Israel required most public companies to adopt International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for financial reporting and to use XBRL-tagged reporting format, as part of an aggressive effort to make its capital markets more transparent and attractive for foreign investors. In this paper, we study all Israeli public companies and analyze the accuracy and reliability of their XBRL-tagged financial statements that are available on MAGNA, the Israel Securities Authority’s electronic system. We describe the process by which the XBRL-based data were collected and reported. We document, categorize, and analyze deficiencies in the XBRL-tagged filings, and inconsistencies between them and the Hebrew-based annual reports. We observe pervasive data entry errors resulting in inaccurate XBRL-generated financial reports, which went undetected for over one year. Further, first year XBRL reporting (in conjunction with IFRS adoption) did not increase foreign investment in the Israeli capital markets. This analysis allows us to better understand the benefits and challenges of the adoption of XBRL.