Abu-Raiya, Hisham, and Qutaiba Agbaria. “Religiousness and Subjective Well-Being Among Israeli-Palestinian College Students: Direct or Mediated Links?” Social Indicators Research (early view; online first).
Espousing a positive psychology orientation, this study aimed to explore the links between religiousness and subjective well-being, and test whether social support and self-control mediate the expected associations between these two variables. Participants were 264 Israeli-Palestinian college students, who were asked to provide demographic information and complete measures of religiousness, social support, self-control, subjective happiness, positive emotions and negative emotions. We found that religiousness was positively correlated with both subjective happiness and positive emotions, but no significant correlation was found between religiousness and negative emotions. Both social support and self-control partially mediated the links between religiousness and both subjective happiness and positive emotions. The findings of the study, as well as its implications and limitations, are discussed.
Loneliness holds detrimental ramifications for health and well-being. Nevertheless, loneliness references in the literature addressing combat-related trauma are few. Consequentially, the qualities and characteristics of such experiences in these posttraumatic realities remain uninvestigated empirically. In the current qualitative study we began filling this gap in the literature. We utilized thematic content analysis of life-stories of 19 combat veterans and 7 ex-POWs that have given testimony at the Israel Trauma Center for Victims of Terror and War (NATAL). Our findings suggest that the loneliness in the contexts at hand is primarily characterized by a sense of experiential isolation, rather than social, emotional, or existential. This is the sensation that due to the extraordinary nature of traumatic experiences the fulfillment of needs such as empathy and intersubjectivity may be unattainable. Integrating our findings with existing interdisciplinary literature regarding social sharing, trauma, and loneliness, we discuss implications for clinical interventions and further research.
Mahajnah, M., R. Sharkia, N. Shorbaji, R. Terkel-Dawer, and N. Zelnik. “P173 – 2561: The Clinical Profile of ADHD in Israel – Impact of Ethnic and Social Diversities.” European Journal of Paediatric Neurology 19, sup. 1 (2015): S142 ff.
The diagnosis of ADHD relies mostly on clinical observation and employment of standard questionnaires and checklist batteries which are highly susceptible to human factors. In this study we searched for differences in the clinical profile of children with ADHD in both the Arab and Jewish sectors in Israel which might be influenced by cultural and social background.
Data of children aged 7–17 years diagnosed with ADHD between 2010 and 2013 in two ADHD clinics in northern Israel was analyzed. The diagnosis of ADHD was based on clinical evaluation and fulfillment of the DSM IV criteria and aided by both the Teacher and Parent Conners Rating Scales. Children with autism and intellectual disabilities were excluded.
Out of 823 patients – 516 (62.7%) were Jewish and 307 (37.3%) were Arabs. The distributions of the ADHD subtypes were similar in both populations. Learning disabilities (LD) and psychiatric comorbidities (behavioral difficulties and anxiety) were reported more frequently in the Jewish population (49% vs. 41% for LD, 15.7% vs. 12.8% for behavioral difficulties and 27.0% vs. 1.0% for anxiety p<0.05). Patients from the Jewish sector were primarily treated with long-acting methylphenidate formulations while patients from the Arab sector were treated primarily with short acting methylphenidate (p<0.05). The most commonly reported adverse effects were anorexia, headache, insomnia and rebound effect and were more frequently reported in the Jewish population (42.0% vs. 18.0% P<0.05).
This study demonstrates that while the biological nature of ADHD and its subtypes are similar in these two populations, learning disabilities, psychiatric co morbidities, employment of long-acting MPH formulations and complaints of side-effects were more prevalent in patients from the Jewish sectors. We presume that these differences are related to cultural and socioeconomic factors and the physician should take them into consideration when treating patients with ADHD.