Bulletin: Psychology and Psychiatry in Israel

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Bulletin: Higher Education and Student Life

Articles

Theses

New Article: Winstok, Effects of Childhood Experience of Violence on Young Israeli Adults’ Global Self-Esteem

Winstok, Zeev. “Effects of Childhood Experience of Violence Between Parents and/or Parent-to-Child Violence on Young Israeli Adults’ Global Self-Esteem.” Violence and Victims 30.4 (2015): 699-713.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-13-00126


Abstract
The study examines long-term effects of family violence in childhood (violence between parents and/or parent-to-child violence) on adult self-esteem. Data were derived from a sample of 352 university students. Findings show that young adults not exposed to family violence in childhood report the highest self-esteem; lower self-esteem reports were by those experiencing one type of family violence; the lowest self-esteem was reported by those who experienced two types of family violence. In the latter two groups, self-esteem was also affected by frequency of violence. A linkage was identified between the family violence types examined: The more frequent one type of violence, the more frequent the other type. Theoretical and practical implications for the study of effects of family violence on child development are discussed.

 

New Article: Siman-Tov et al, The Social Impact of Terrorism on Civilian Populations

Siman-Tov, Maya, Moran Bodas, and Kobi Peleg. “The Social Impact of Terrorism on Civilian Populations: Lessons Learned from Decades of Terrorism in Israel and Abroad.” Social Science Quarterly 97.1 (2016): 75-85.
 
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1111/ssqu.12254
 
Abstract

Objective: This article considers the sociopsychological implications of terrorism, which are sometimes neglected in preparedness plans. Methods: Using Israeli experiences as a case study, this article briefly reviews four points of connection between terrorism and its psychological and social legacies: the sociopolitical aspects of terrorism, the unexpected nature of terrorism, normalization of terrorism and public resilience, and social aspects of medical care for terror-related injuries. Results: The Israeli experience suggests preparedness plans should include planning for the sociopsychological effects of terrorism on targeted populations and may, in certain contexts, use Israeli approaches as a model. Conclusions: Experience gained in Israel and elsewhere can set the stage for an appropriate response plan striving not only for preparedness but also resilience. Efforts should be made to advance local capabilities, response plans, and resilience by drawing on the experience of others in coping with the terror threat.

 

 

 

New Article: Hoshen et al, Stimulant Use for ADHD among Children in Israel

Hoshen, Moshe B., Arriel Benis, Katherine M. Keyes, and Helga Zoëga. “Stimulant Use for ADHD and Relative Age in Class among Children in Israel.” Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety (early view; online first).

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pds.3962

 

Abstract

Diagnosis of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasing. The present study sought to identify characteristics and medication treatment patterns of children with ADHD and compare them by relative age in class, sex, ethnicity, family size, sibling order, and other socioeconomic status, as well as find trends in disparity of pharmacotherapy. This study was based on data from 1 013 149 Clalit Health Services members aged 6–17 years during 2006–2011. The use of stimulant medication is growing among children in Israel. Although the overall use does not exceed the estimated prevalence of ADHD among children, the appropriateness of prescribing to the Israeli pediatric population, especially to the youngest children in class, may be questionable.

 

 

 

New Article: Vakil & Hoofien, Clinical Neuropsychology in Israel

Vakil, Eli, and Dan Hoofien. “Clinical Neuropsychology in Israel: History, Training, Practice and Future Challenges.” The Clinical Neuropsychologist (early view; online first).

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2016.1175667

 

Abstract

Objective: This is an invited paper for a special issue on international perspectives on training and practice in clinical neuropsychology. We provide a review of the status of clinical neuropsychology in Israel, including the history of neuropsychological, educational, and accreditation requirements to become a clinical neuropsychologist and to practice clinical neuropsychology. Method: The information is based primarily on the personal knowledge of the authors who have been practicing clinical neuropsychology for over three decades and hold various administrative and academic positions in this field. Second, we conducted three ad hoc surveys among clinical and rehabilitation psychologists; heads of academic programs for rehabilitation and neuropsychology; and heads of accredited service providers. Third, we present a literature review of publications by clinical neuropsychologists in Israel. Results: Most of the clinical neuropsychologists are graduates of either rehabilitation or clinical training programs. The vast majority of neuropsychologists are affiliated with rehabilitation psychology. The training programs (2–3 years of graduate school) provide solid therapeutic and diagnostic skills to the students. Seventy-five percent of the participants in this survey are employed at least part-time by public or state-funded institutions. Israeli neuropsychologists are heavily involved in case management, including vocational counseling, and rehabilitation psychotherapy. Conclusions and future goals: Although clinical neuropsychologists in Israel are well educated and valued by all health professionals, there are still several challenges that must be addressed in order to further advance the field and the profession. These included the need for Hebrew-language standardized and normalized neuropsychological tests and the application of evidence-based interventions in neuropsychological rehabilitation.

 

 

 

New Article: Shenkman and Shmotkin, Meaning in Life Among Gay and Heterosexual Fathers

Shenkman, G., and D. Shmotkin. “The Association Between Self-Perceived Parental Role and Meaning in Life Among Gay and Heterosexual Fathers.” Journal of Family Psychology. (early view; online first).

 

URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27123673

 

Abstract

The association between self-perceived parental role and meaning in life (indicated by personal growth and purpose in life) was explored among 82 Israeli gay fathers that were individually matched with 82 heterosexual fathers. Self-perceived parental role was associated with meaning in life and this association was moderated by sexual orientation, demonstrating a significant positive association between self-perceived parental role and meaning in life among gay fathers but not among heterosexual fathers. The results are interpreted in light of the unique parental role gay fathers possibly construct in the context of intentional parenting and through possible life circumstances which appear associated with increased feelings of personal growth and purpose in life.

 

 

 

New Article: Nakash, Postnatal Depression, Acculturation and Mother–Infant Bond Among Eritrean Asylum Seekers

Nakash, Ora, Maayan Nagar, and Ido Lurie. “The Association Between Postnatal Depression, Acculturation and Mother–Infant Bond Among Eritrean Asylum Seekers in Israel.” Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health (early view; online first).
 
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10903-016-0348-8
 
Abstract

We examined the association between postnatal depression (PND), acculturation and mother–infant bond among 38 Eritrean asylum seekers in Israel, who were within 6 months of delivery. Participants completed a survey in their native language. A high rate of women (81.6 %) met the clinical threshold for PND on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Higher severity of PND (partial r = −.64, p < .001), higher identification with Israeli culture (partial r = −.45, p = .02), and lower quality of romantic relationship were associated with impaired mother–infant bond (partial r = .58, p = .002). Findings highlight the need to establish services to screen and treat PND among this vulnerable population in the receiving countries.

 

 

 

New Book: Kahanoff, Jews and Arabs in Israel Encountering Their Identities

Kahanoff, Maya. Jews and Arabs in Israel Encountering Their Identities. Transformations in Dialogue. Lanham and London: Lexington Books and Jerusalem: Van Leer Institute, 2016.

 

1498504981

 

Jews and Arabs in Israel Encountering their Identities reveals the powerful potential of inter-group dialogues to transform identities and mutually negating relations. Using meetings with Israeli Jewish and Palestinian Arabian students who attend the Hebrew University of Jerusalem as case studies, Kahanoff examines the hidden psychological dimensions of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and illustrates how each participant’s sense of identity shifted in response to encounters with conflicting perspectives. Kahanoff contends that an awareness of the limitations of dialogue, without the renunciation of its value, is the most realistic basis upon which to build a sustainable agreement. This book is recommended for scholars of psychology, sociology, religious studies, political science, and communication studies.

 

Table of Contents

  • Part I. Center Stage Conversations
  • Chapter One: Split Discourse: Jews and Arabs Converse
  • Part II. Behind the Scenes
  • Chapter Two: Internal Jewish-Israeli Dialogues
  • Chapter Three: Internal Palestinian-Arab Dialogues
  • Part III. Inner/Hidden Dialogues
  • Chapter Four: Jewish Israeli Dilemmas
  • Chapter Five: Palestinian Arab Dilemmas

  • Chapter Six: Theoretical Aftertalks: Dialogical Transformations

 

MAYA KAHANOFF is lecturer at the Swiss Center Graduate Program for Conflict Research, Management and Resolution and associate research fellow at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

ToC: Israel Studies 21.2 (2016)

Israel Studies, 21.2 (2016)

Table of Contents

 

 Front Matter (pp. i-v)

Special Section—Dislocations of Immigration

The Politics of Defining Jews from Arab Countries (pp. 1-26)

Shayna Zamkanei 

Challenges and Psychological Adjustment of Religious American Adolescent Immigrants to Israel (pp. 27-49)

Avidan Milevsky

“Marginal Immigrants”: Jewish-Argentine Immigration to the State of Israel, 1948–1967 (pp. 50-76)

Sebastian Klor

Articles

Annexation or Separation? The Municipal Status of the Jewish Neighborhoods of Jaffa 1940–1944 (pp. 77-101)

Tamir Goren

Reasoning from History: Israel’s “Peace Law” and Resettlement of the Tel Malhata Bedouin (pp. 102-132)

Havatzelet Yahel and Ruth Kark

The Israeli Names Law: National Integration and Military Rule (pp. 133-154)

Moshe Naor

 Khilul Hashem: Blasphemy in Past and Present Israel (pp. 155-181)

Gideon Aran

The Construction and De-construction of the Ashkenazi vs. Sephardic/Mizrahi Dichotomy in Israeli Culture: Rabbi Eliyahou Zini vs. Rabbi Ovadia Yosef (pp. 182-205)

Joseph Ringel

Back Matter

 

 

New Article: Hadar,Resisting (with) the Other

Hadar, Uri. “Resisting (with) the Other: A Tribute to Eyad el-Sarraj.” Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society (early view, online first).
 
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/pcs.2016.2
 
Abstract

Social and political oppression of a designated social group may be compared to repression in the individual domain. In both cases, there is an agency that acts as an oppressor or repressor, which agency arouses resistance in the oppressed. Resistance aims to liberate the oppressed/repressed from the subjugating agency. The question that I address in the present paper is whether there is any advantage in resisting oppression or repression jointly with the oppressor or the repressor. Such advantage may emerge if we deconstruct the separateness between the oppressor and the oppressed-repressor and repressed. Such a deconstruction gives rise to more hybrid notions of power relations. My paper examines these issues in two distinct domains: that of psychoanalysis (with special reference to therapy) and post-colonial theory (with special reference to the Israeli Occupation in the West Bank and Gaza). The results of my deconstruction are formulated in terms derived from the work of Melanie Klein, especially the concept of ‘part object’. I freely extend this term to refer to forms of partial subjecthood such as part subject, part resistance and part reconciliation and use these formulations to argue that resistance to repression/oppression in both therapy and the Occupation could better be done by collaboration between the related sides. This allows mutual reinforcement of the resisting effort. I illustrate these ideas by vignettes from the Palestinian-Israeli arena.

 

 

 

New Article: Shelef et al, An Effective Suicide Prevention Program in the IDF

Shelef, L., L. Tatsa-Laur, E. Derazne, J.J. Mann, and E. Fruchter. “An Effective Suicide Prevention Program in the Israeli Defense Forces: A Cohort Study.” European Psychiatry 31 (2016): 37-43.

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2015.10.004

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effectiveness of the IDF Suicide Prevention Program, implemented since 2006.

Design

Quasi-experimental (before and after) cohort study.

Participants

Two cohorts of IDF mandatory service soldiers: the first inducted prior to (1992–2005, n = 766,107) and the second subsequent to (2006–2012, n = 405,252) the launching of the intervention program.

Exposure

The IDF Suicide Prevention Program is a population-based program, incorporating: reducing weapon availability, de-stigmatizing help-seeking behavior, integrating mental health officers into service units, and training commanders and soldiers to recognize suicide risk factors and warning signs.

Main outcome measure

Suicide rate and time to suicide in cohorts before and after exposure to the Suicide Prevention Program.

Results

Trend analysis showed lower suicide rates in the cohort after intervention. The hazard ratio for the intervention effect on time to suicide was 0.44 (95% CI = 0.34–0.56, P < .001) among males. Lower risk was associated with: male gender; born in Israel; higher socio-economic status; higher intelligence score; and serving in a combat unit (HR = 0.43: 95% CI = 0.33–0.55).

Conclusions

There was a 57% decrease in the suicide rate following the administration of the IDF Suicide Prevention Program. The effect of the intervention appears to be related to use of a weapon, and being able to benefit from improved help-seeking and de-stigmatization. Future efforts should seek to extend the program’s prevention reach to other demographic groups of soldiers. The success of the IDF program may inform suicide prevention in other military organizations and in the civilian sector.
.

 

 

 

New Article: Araten-Bergman et al, Psychosocial Adjustment of Israeli Veterans with Disabilities

Araten-Bergman, Tal, Patricia Tal-Katz, and Michael Ashley Stein. “Psychosocial Adjustment of Israeli Veterans with Disabilities: Does Employment Status Matter?” Work 50.1 (2015): 59-71.

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-141925

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Since its establishment in 1948, the state of Israel has been deeply committed to reintegrating veterans with disabilities into mainstream society. Prominently, the Israeli Ministry of Defence’s rehabilitation division provides veterans with disabilities with a wide array of benefits and services aimed at restoring their physical and psychosocial functioning, especially in the workplace. The focus on employment is motivated by a prevailing assumption among professionals that successful adjustment to disability is contingent on an individual’s ability to reacquire normative occupational function. To date, however, this widely accepted wisdom has not been empirically scrutinized.

OBJECTIVE: To empirically explore whether employment status is associated to psychological, social, and behavioural adjustment attributes.

METHODS: One hundred and one employed veterans were compared to 111 non-employed veterans in respect to their self-reported levels of hope, acceptance of disability, social networks size and social participation patterns.

RESULTS: Employed veterans reported significantly higher levels psychological adjustment as manifested in elevated hope and acceptance of disability and lighter social network than their non-employed counterparts. However no differences were found between employed and non-employed veterans with respect to their social participation patterns.

CONCLUSIONS: The value of these findings, as well as wider implications for rehabilitation professionals and policy makers, is discussed.

New Article: Isralowitz & Reznik, Binge Drinking and Risk Taking Behavior Among Adolescent Females

Isralowitz, Richard, and Alexander Reznik. “Binge Drinking and Risk Taking Behavior Among Adolescent Females in Israel.” Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing (early view; online first).

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcap.12126

Abstract

Purpose
This prospective study examined binge drinking and alcohol-related problem behavior among Israeli adolescent females attending public school or a residential facility for substance abuse treatment.

Problem
Scant information is known about adolescent females, especially those with high-risk (e.g., school dropout and immigrant origin) characteristics.

Methods
The authors hypothesized that school, residential treatment, and mothers’ country of origin status are associated with binge drinking and problem behavior.

Findings
Females in residential treatment reported higher levels of binge drinking and problem behavior as expected. However, country of origin was not a significant factor differentiating the female adolescents in school or a residential facility. Logistic regression points to current cigarette smoking, ease of purchasing alcohol, unsupervised night activity, low religiosity, and being physically threatened as predictors of binge drinking and problem behavior.

Conclusion
The lack of differences based on country of origin status points to acculturation as a possible reason for the homogeneity. Further research is needed to study the impact of acculturation as well as monitor the alcohol use patterns and problems of adolescents over time and across locations to address prevailing needs.

 

 

New Article: Schiff et al, PTSD Among Female Methadone Patients Who Were Survivors of Sexual Abuse

Schiff, Miriam, Nitsa Nacasch, Shabtay Levit, Noam Katz, and Edna B. Foa. “Prolonged Exposure for Treating PTSD Among Female Methadone Patients Who Were Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Israel.” Social Work in Health Care 54.8 (2015): 687-707.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00981389.2015.1058311

 

Abstract

The aims of this pilot study were: (a) to test the feasibility of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy conducted by a social worker staff on female patients in methadone program clinics who were survivors of child sexual abuse or rape and (b) to examine preliminary outcomes of PE on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and illicit drug use at pre- and posttreatment, and up to 12-month follow-ups. Twelve female methadone patients who were survivors of child sexual abuse or rape diagnosed with PTSD were enrolled in 13–19 weekly individual PE sessions. Assessments were conducted at pre-, mid-, and posttreatment, as well as at 3, 6, and 12-month follow-ups. The treatment outcomes measures included PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and illicit drug use. Ten of the 12 study patients completed treatment. PTSD and depressive symptoms showed significant reduction. No relapse to illicit drug use was detected. These preliminary results suggest that PE may be delivered by methadone social workers with successful outcomes. Further research should test the efficacy of PE among methadone patients in a randomized control trial with standard care as the control condition.

 

 

New Article: Sheehi and Sheehi, Searching for a Third Space in the Palestine-Israel Matrix

Sheehi, Lara, and Stephen Sheehi. “Enactments of Otherness and Searching for a Third Space in the Palestine-Israel Matrix.” Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society (early view; online first).

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/pcs.2015.66

 

Abstract

This article offers an exploration of the Third Space possibilities within the inter-subjective experience of Palestinians and Israelis. It explores the sociopolitical forces that constitute psychological threats to potential Third Spaces. We map the psychic structures that govern the relationship between Jewish Israelis and Palestinians, inside Israel and in the Occupied Territories. We will see how these relationships are fundamentally structured by asymmetries of power and subjectivity, resulting in closures of possibilities that could constitute a workable and genuinely reciprocal inter-subjective space of relatedness. As a result, their interaction is characterized by a series of what we term “enactments of otherness,” masterfully preemptive defensive processes that safeguard the object from further oppression and denigration. These enactments may arise from a “perverse” relationship between dominating and dominated subjects; however, they do not preclude the potential for creating radical alternative spaces and subjectivities from which Israelis and Palestinians can, together, co-create viable inter-subjectivities.

 

 

 

New Article: Nasie et al, Young Children in Intractable Conflicts

Nasie, Meytal, Aurel Harrison Diamond, and Daniel Bar-Tal. “Young Children in Intractable Conflicts: The Israeli Case.” Personality and Social Psychology Review (early view; online first).

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1088868315607800

 

Abstract

The article examines the political socialization of young Jewish-Israeli children who live under the Israeli–Palestinian intractable conflict. It proposes arguments and presents empirical evidence to suggest that the way in which political socialization of young children happens in this context contributes to the development of conflict-supporting narratives of ethos of conflict and collective memory by the youngest generation. As a result, the conflict solidifies adherence to these narratives in adulthood, thereby serving as a major obstacle to the processes of peace-making and peace-building. Specifically, as evidence for showing how the political socialization works in Israel, a series of studies conducted in Israeli kindergartens and elementary schools are presented. These studies recount the contents acquired by young children, as well as contents delivered by teachers, related to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. This indicates the serious consequences of acquiring conflict-supporting narratives at an early age in societies involved in intractable conflict.

 

 

New Article, Amrami, Therapy Versus Messianism in Preparing for the Evacuation of Israeli Settlements

Amrami, Galia Plotkin. “‘Denial or Faith?’ Therapy Versus Messianism in Preparing for the Evacuation of Israeli Settlements.” Anthropology and Education Quarterly 46.4 (2015): 414-30.

 
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aeq.12119
 
Abstract

This article offers an ethnographic account of the professional activities of mental health practitioners, employed by the state’s religious education system. I analyze various models implemented by practitioners for the purposes of preparing pupils for the state-mandated evacuation of Jewish settlers from Gaza and the West Bank. By focusing on the interaction between psychological and religious-national cultural frameworks I show how practitioners imbue familiar professional concepts with new meanings and create hybrid models of intervention.

 

 

 

New Article: Segal-Engelchin et al, Early Marriage Perspectives of Engaged and Married Muslim Women in Israel

Segal-Engelchin, Dorit, Efrat Huss, and Najlaa Massry. “The Experience of Early Marriage Perspectives of Engaged and Married Muslim Women in Israel.” Journal of Adolescent Research (2015).

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0743558415605167

 

Abstract

The negative impact of early marriage on girls’ psychosocial well-being is well documented in the literature, but little is known about the girls’ motivations and experiences within marriage. A phenomenological case study approach, combining artwork and semi-structured interviews, was used to investigate the motivations and experiences of early marriage among 10 engaged and married young Muslim women who married young in Israel. The findings regarding the engaged women point to their decision to use marriage as a way to fulfill their need for freedom, their wish to experience love in a culturally respectable frame, and to escape from poverty and from difficult family. Conversely, the married women’s narratives point to the heavy price and limited benefits of early marriage, in creating intense new problems and not providing relief from former problems. The regret over having not studied, intense loneliness, lack of money, and the search for a more respect-based marriage are predominant themes. The financial and social motivations for marriage found among the women studied suggest that in their decision to marry young, they were not passive victims of love or society but were rather taking an active pragmatic decision within the very limited options open to them.

 

 

New Article: Hareli et al, A Cross-Cultural Study on Emotion Expression and the Learning of Social Norms

Hareli, Shlomo, Konstantinos Kafetsios, and Ursula Hess. “A Cross-Cultural Study on Emotion Expression and the Learning of Social Norms.” Frontiers in Psychology 6 (2015).

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01501

 

Abstract

When we do not know how to correctly behave in a new context, the emotions that people familiar with the context show in response to the behaviors of others, can help us understand what to do or not to do. The present study examined cross-cultural differences in how group emotional expressions (anger, sadness, neutral) can be used to deduce a norm violation in four cultures (Germany, Israel, Greece, and the US), which differ in terms of decoding rules for negative emotions. As expected, in all four countries, anger was a stronger norm violation signal than sadness or neutral expressions. However, angry and sad expressions were perceived as more intense and the relevant norm was learned better in Germany and Israel than in Greece and the US. Participants in Greece were relatively better at using sadness as a sign of a likely norm violation. The results demonstrate both cultural universality and cultural differences in the use of group emotion expressions in norm learning. In terms of cultural differences they underscore that the social signal value of emotional expressions may vary with culture as a function of cultural differences, both in emotion perception, and as a function of a differential use of emotions.