New Article: Stein and Tuval-Mashiach, Loneliness of Israeli Veterans of Combat and Captivity

Stein, Jacob Y., and Rivka Tuval-Mashiach. “Loneliness and Isolation in Life-Stories of Israeli Veterans of Combat and Captivity.” Psychological Trauma 7.2 (2015): 122-30.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036936

 

Abstract

Loneliness holds detrimental ramifications for health and well-being. Nevertheless, loneliness references in the literature addressing combat-related trauma are few. Consequentially, the qualities and characteristics of such experiences in these posttraumatic realities remain uninvestigated empirically. In the current qualitative study we began filling this gap in the literature. We utilized thematic content analysis of life-stories of 19 combat veterans and 7 ex-POWs that have given testimony at the Israel Trauma Center for Victims of Terror and War (NATAL). Our findings suggest that the loneliness in the contexts at hand is primarily characterized by a sense of experiential isolation, rather than social, emotional, or existential. This is the sensation that due to the extraordinary nature of traumatic experiences the fulfillment of needs such as empathy and intersubjectivity may be unattainable. Integrating our findings with existing interdisciplinary literature regarding social sharing, trauma, and loneliness, we discuss implications for clinical interventions and further research.

New Article: Possick, Grandparents’ Meaning Construction of the Loss of a Grandchild in a Terror Attack

Possick, Chaya. “Grandparents’ Meaning Construction of the Loss of a Grandchild in a Terror Attack in Israel.” Journal of Loss and Trauma 20.3 (2015): 214-28.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2013.852028

 

Abstract

This qualitative research study is based on in-depth interviews with 12 grandparents who had a grandchild killed in a terror attack in Israel. Two main categories that emerged from the data analysis were (a) loss in the personal context and (b) loss in the collective context. Each category was subdivided into two groups: first, grandparents whose grief centered on specific aspects of the painful loss of an intimate connection with the grandchild and grandparents who were directly exposed to the terror attack and whose narrative focused on the traumatic memory, and, second, grandparents who constructed their loss as part of the history of anti-Semitism and grandparents who constructed their loss as part of the Israeli narrative of the struggle for the land and the state of Israel. The article demonstrates how each type highlights a different aspect of grandparental bereavement as a result of a terror attack. Clinical implications of the findings are presented.

New Article: Canetti et al, Exposure to Violence and Support for Compromise

Canetti, Daphna, Julia Elad-Strenger, Iris Lavi, Dana Guy, and Daniel Bar-Tal. “Exposure to Violence, Ethos of Conflict, and Support for Compromise. Surveys in Israel, East Jerusalem, West Bank, and Gaza.” Journal of Conflict Resolution (early view; online first).

 
 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022002715569771

 

Abstract

Does ongoing exposure to political violence prompt subject groups to support or oppose compromise in situations of intractable conflict? If so, what is the mechanism underlying these processes? Political scholarship neither offers conclusive arguments nor sufficiently addresses individual-level forms of exposure to violence in the context of political conflict, particularly the factors mediating political outcomes. We address this by looking at the impact of exposure to political violence, psychological distress, perceived threat, and ethos of conflict on support for political compromise. A mediated model is hypothesized whereby exposure to political violence provokes support for the ethos of conflict and hinders support for compromise through perceived psychological distress and perceived national threat. We examined representative samples of two parties to the same conflict: Israelis (N = 781) and Palestinians from Gaza, East Jerusalem, and the West Bank (N = 1,196). The study’s main conclusion is that ethos of conflict serves as a mediating variable in the relationship between exposure to violence and attitudes toward peaceful settlement of the conflict.

 
 
 

New Article: Gueta & Addad, Long-Term Recovery of Former Drug-Dependent Israeli Women

Gueta, Keren, and Moshe Addad. “A House of Cards: The Long-Term Recovery Experience of Former Drug-Dependent Israeli Women.” Women’s Studies International Forum 48 (2015): 18-28.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2014.10.003

 

Abstract

While previous studies on recovery from drug addiction have tended to focus on recovery initiation and treatment issues among men, the primary purpose of this study is to shed light on the experience of long-term recovery among women. For this purpose, we employed qualitative methods and interviewed nine long-term (two to seven years) recovering women. Additionally, we monitored five women for two years of the recovery process in a dual research track (a total of 24 interviews). The research findings indicate that developing recovery capital, including self-awareness, stress-coping strategies, and various social resources (Granfield & Cloud, 1999), can be part of an effective strategy for overcoming long-term recovery challenges while financial difficulties, intrusive memories, motherhood and inability to find leisure activities may hinder it. These results indicate the need to reconsider gender-sensitive therapies in order to help women to not only initiate, but also maintain recovery.

New Article: Hirsch et al, Home Attachment and Coherence in Times of War: Perspectives of Jewish Israeli Mothers

Hirsch, Tal Litvak, Orna Braun-Lewensohn, and Alon Lazar. “Does Home Attachment Contribute to Strengthen Sense of Coherence in Times of War? Perspectives of Jewish Israeli Mothers.” Women & Health 55.4 (2015): 467-83.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03630242.2015.1022688

 

Abtract

The perceptions of home, the significance attached to the home, and the reasons for the decision to continue living at home despite past and potentially future threats were investigated among Jewish Israeli mothers whose homes were exposed to long-term rocket attacks. Findings showed that the mothers expressed a firm attachment to their homes and to their physical and social surroundings and indicated that home attachment, in terms of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors connected to home, contributed to the strengthening of their sense of coherence due to the comprehension, management, and the meaning that they accorded the situation. These components of sense of coherence served as assets and coping resources that helped the women handle their stressful situations.

New Article: Stolovy et al, Quality of Life Among Israeli Women Who Practice Channeling Compared to Women with Similar Traumatic History

Stolovy, Tali, Rachel Lev-Wiesel, and Eliezer Witztum. “Dissociation: Adjustment or Distress? Dissociative Phenomena, Absorption and Quality of Life Among Israeli Women Who Practice Channeling Compared to Women with Similar Traumatic History.” Journal of Religion and Health 54.3 (2015): 1040-51.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10943-014-9885-4

 

Abstract

This study aimed to explore the relationship between traumatic history, dissociative phenomena, absorption and quality of life among a population of channelers, in comparison with a population of non-channelers with similar traumatic history. The study sample included 150 women. The measures included Traumatic Experiences Scale, Dissociative Experience Scale, Absorption Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and Quality of Life (QOL) Assessment. Channelers presented significantly higher levels of dissociation, absorption and psychological health compared to the other group. Dissociation and absorption were trauma-related only among the comparison group. Hence, dissociation has different qualities among different people, and spiritual practice contributes to QOL.

New Book: Safir et al., Future Directions in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Safir, Marilyn P., Helene S. Wallach, and Albert Rizzo, eds. Future Directions in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment. New York: Springer, 2015.

 

springer_

 

Ours is an era of increasing tension, both global and local. And not surprisingly, PTSD is recognized not only in combat veterans and active military personnel, but also disaster and assault survivors across the demographic spectrum. As current events from mass shootings to the debate over trigger warnings keep the issue in the public eye, the disorder remains a steady concern among researchers and practitioners.

Future Directions in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder presents findings and ideas with the potential to influence both our conceptualization of the condition and the techniques used to address it. A multidisciplinary panel of experts offers new analyses of risk and resilience factors, individual and group approaches to prevention, the evolving process of diagnosis, and effective treatment and delivery. Chapters on treatment allow readers to compare widely-used prolonged exposure and VR methods with innovative applications of cognitive processing therapy and interpersonal therapy. And an especially compelling contribution surveys empirically-based programs relating to what for many is the emblematic trauma of our time, the events of September 11, 2001. Included in the coverage:

  • Predictors of vulnerability to PTSD: neurobiological and genetic risk factors.
  • Early intervention: is prevention better than cure?
  • The functional neuroanatomy of PTSD.
  • The development of evidence-based treatment for PTSD.
  • Enhancing exposure therapy using D-Cycloserine (DCS).
  • PLUS: a case example as seen through five therapeutic perspectives.

While millions experience trauma, relatively few develop chronic PTSD. Future Directions in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a practical and proactive reference for the health and clinical psychologists, sociologists, psychiatrists, and primary care physicians dedicated to further decreasing those numbers.

 

Table of contents

  • Vulnerability to PTSD: Psychosocial and Demographic Risk and Resilience Factors

    Bar-Shai, Marina (et al.)

    Pages 3-30

  • Neurobiological Risk Factors and Predictors of Vulnerability and Resilience to PTSD

    Bar-Shai, Marina (et al.)

    Pages 31-63

  • The Early Adolescent or “Juvenile Stress” Translational Animal Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Richter-Levin, Gal (et al.)

    Pages 65-77

  • An Attachment Perspective on Traumatic and Posttraumatic Reactions

    Mikulincer, Mario (et al.)

    Pages 79-96 

  • Delayed-Onset PTSD in Israeli Combat Veterans: Correlates, Clinical Picture, and Controversy

    Horesh, Danny (et al.)

    Cutting Edge Research on Prevention of PTSD

    Kearns, Megan C. (et al.)

    Pages 133-153

  • Systems of Care for Traumatized Children: The Example of a School-Based Intervention Model

    Brom, Danny (et al.)

    Pages 155-169

  • Is Prevention Better than Cure? How Early Interventions Can Prevent PTSD

    Freedman, Sara A. (et al.)

    Pages 171-186

  • Evolution of PTSD Diagnosis in the

    Echterling, Lennis G. (et al.)

    Pages 189-212

  • Functional Neuroanatomy of PTSD: Developmental Cytoarchitectonic Trends, Memory Systems, and Control Processes

    Gilboa, Asaf

    Pages 213-241

  • Prolonged Exposure Treatment

    Nacasch, Nitsa (et al.)

    Pages 245-251

  • Cognitive Processing Therapy: Beyond the Basics

    Chard, Kathleen M. (et al.)

    Pages 253-262

  • Interpersonal Psychotherapy for PTSD

    Rafaeli, Alexandra Klein (et al.)

    Pages 263-272

  • Inclusion of Virtual Reality: A Rationale for the Use of VR in the Treatment of PTSD

    García-Palacios, Azucena (et al.)

    Pages 275-287


  • Initial Development and Dissemination of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Combat-Related PTSD

    Reger, Greg M. (et al.)

    Pages 289-302

  • Update and Expansion of the Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan PTSD Exposure Therapy System

    Rizzo, Albert (et al.)

    Pages 303-328

  • Mental Health Problems and Treatment Utilization of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans Enrolled in Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care

    Seal, Karen H. (et al.)

    Pages 329-345

  • Enhancing Exposure Therapy for PTSD Using

    Burton, Mark S. (et al.)

    Pages 347-365

  • Implementation of Evidence-Based Assessment, Treatment, and Research Programs Following the World Trade Center Disaster on September 11, 2001

    Olden, Megan (et al.)

    Pages 367-387

  • Case Presentation of a Chronic Combat PTSD Veteran

    Nacasch, Nitsa (et al.)

    Pages 391-409

  • Matching Treatment to Patients Suffering from PTSD: What We Know and Especially What We Don’t Know

    Wallach, Helene S.

    Pages 411-415

  • Erratum to: Case Presentation of a Chronic Combat PTSD Veteran

 

New Article: Abu-Kaf and Braun-Lewensohn, Paths to Depression. Comparing Bedouin Arab and Jewish Students

Abu-Kaf, Sarah and Orna Braun-Lewensohn. “Paths to Depression Among Two Different Cultural Contexts. Comparing Bedouin Arab and Jewish Students.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 46.4 (2015): 612-30.

 

URL: http://jcc.sagepub.com/content/46/4/612

 

Abstract

Over the past two decades, there has been an increase in the number of Bedouin Arab students studying at institutions of higher education in Southern Israel. To date, research on Bedouin students is limited, particularly with regard to their coping and adjustment. The main aim of the current study is to shed more light on potential pathways between vulnerability factors and depression among Bedouin Arab and Jewish students. This study was designed to explore cultural differences in the levels of self-criticism, depression, coping, and social support among Bedouin Arab college/university students and their Jewish peers, and to examine the effects of self-criticism on depression in the two cultural contexts. To that end, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 108 Bedouin students and 109 Jewish students. The participants completed the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire, Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey, Orientations to Problems Experienced Inventory, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and demographic questionnaire. In this work, we observed differences in the levels of self-criticism, depression, avoidant coping, and social support in the different groups. Moreover, among the Jewish participants, self-criticism affected depression directly. However, among the Bedouin Arabs, self-criticism affected depression only indirectly, through avoidant coping. The present study highlights the possibility that specific cultural contexts underscore the role of avoidant coping in the pathways between self-criticism and depression, whereas other cultural contexts underscore the direct effect of self-criticism on depression levels. Furthermore, the current research underscores the importance of cross-cultural perspectives in studies of vulnerability factors and depression.

New Book: Friedman-Peleg, A Nation on the Couch. The Politics of Trauma in Israel (in Hebrew)

פרידמן-פלג, קרן. העם על הספה. הפוליטיקה של הטראומה בישראל, ספריית אשכולות. ירושלים: מאגנס, 2014.

 

magnes

 

URL: http://www.magnespress.co.il/

 

Abstract

This book is an invitation to observe the practice of one of the most dominant communities in Israel, and yet one of its most closed ones: the therapeutic community. Through a four-year anthropological field work (2004-2008) among two of the most prominent associations in Israel – Natal (“Israel’s Trauma Center for Victims of Terror and War”) and the “Israel Trauma Coalition” – the chapters of this book trace the inevitable intersection between professional questions of clinical diagnosis, treatment and prevention of PTSD in the context of the Israeli-Arab conflict with political question of group identity and power relations: what differences exist between therapists on the meaning of traumatic experiences and its moral boundaries? What consensus is reached regarding practices of aid and funds allocation, and what is the connection between it and the questions of group identity; including political, ethnic, and social class aspects?

This ethnographic journey will shed light on the development of politics around the therapeutic practice of trauma in two sequential instances: (1) the institutional instance will address the establishment of a new therapeutic home, through the extraordinary juncture of therapists, donors and advertisers; (2) the professional instance will present the branching of four circles of therapeutic occupation of trauma: the “clinical core” among soldiers; the practice of the tense relationship between “primary” trauma of a man and the “secondary” trauma of a woman, his spouse; the growing distance from the “clinical mothership,” for the sake of intervention among “risk groups” from Be’er-Sheva in the South to Daliyat al-Karmel in the north; and the emphasis on the prevention of trauma, through activities such as “strength and immunity” in Sderot. These examinations will demonstrate how the therapeutic practice is far from representing a single objective reality with a clear professional truth. Instead, it will reveal the existence of a polyphonic and multi-participant network of reciprocities surrounding the therapeutic practice of trauma, between various social locations and diverse worldviews.

Dissertation: de la Fontaine, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and War Narratives of Israeli Soldiers

de la Fontaine, Naama, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Social Support and the Role of Ideology as Evident in the War Narratives of Israeli Soldiers. Adelphi University, 2013.

 

URL: http://search.proquest.com/docview/1513380504

 

Abstract

The detrimental effects of war exposure on soldiers’ wellbeing have been documented since the dawn of written narrative. However, the negative impact of trauma, and particularly war trauma, on soldiers’ mental health functioning and wellbeing has historically been overlooked by the psychiatric field at best, and met with antipathy and contempt at worst. This, along with various other social and cultural factors, has shaped the understanding and treatment of veterans for decades. At present, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as related mental health difficulties are well recognized as possible outcomes of war exposure among military personnel, yet the role of potential protective and risk factors in this population calls for further exploration. The ongoing rise in political conflict worldwide, along with the large numbers of soldiers impacted by war, emphasizes the need for studies that offer a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of soldiers’ experiences at war and upon homecoming. Israel, a country facing ongoing political turmoil, serves as a paradigm for understanding the complex interaction of personal, cultural, religious, and political factors that are thought to contribute to one’s ability to cope with traumatic events. The current study aimed to contribute to the existing literature documenting the impact of war experience on soldiers’ wellbeing by gaining insight into the lived experiences of soldiers. Specifically, this study sought to examine post-traumatic symptoms and mental health functioning in Israeli veterans of the 2006 Second Lebanon War, assessing participants’ post war mental health functioning, as well as their perception of various potential sources of support and the degree to which social factors played a role in soldiers’ motivation to fight, at-war coping, and adjustment post-war. Given the unique climate of military service in Israel, the study also sought to understand the role of religious, spiritual and political ideologies in motivating soldiers and allowing them to cope with war-related experiences. To this end, participants completed semi-structured interviews targeting these questions. Participants’ narratives were analyzed utilizing a qualitative method of analysis (Le., Consensual Qualitative Research) from which emerged many domains and categories capturing the most frequent topics and content of participants’ responses. Results of the current study captured the most prevalent experiences described by participants. The majority of participants reported experiencing some PTSD symptoms, yet denied feeling anger or irritability. Participants differentiated between various sources of support and most denied that ideologies played a significant role in their war experiences. Social support, and particularly relationships with fellow soldiers, was found to offer greater motivation to fight, and to serve as a greater source of coping both during and after war than did ideological beliefs. Nevertheless, many participants described post war change related to spiritual beliefs and existential growth. These findings are important in guiding clinical intervention for soldiers participate in war. Findings are preliminary and lead to the emergence of a multitude of follow up questions; thus, future research assessing soldiers’ experiences during and following war is warranted.

 

Subject: Mental health; Psychology; Military studies

Classification: 0347: Mental health; 0621: Psychology; 0750: Military studies

Identifier / keyword: Social sciences, Psychology, Health and environmental sciences, trauma, Soldiers, War, Social support, Spirituality, Narratives

Number of pages: 269

Publication year: 2013

Degree date: 2013

School code: 0830

Source: DAI-B 75/06(E), Dec 2014

Place of publication: Ann Arbor

Country of publication: United States

ISBN: 9781303809668

Advisor: Szymanski, Kate

University/institution: Adelphi University, The Institute of Advanced Psychological Studies

University location: United States — New York

Degree: Ph.D.

Source type: Dissertations & Theses

Language: English

Document type: Dissertation/Thesis

Dissertation/thesis number: 3579778

ProQuest document ID: 1513380504

 

New Article: Shelef et al, Characteristics of Soldiers with Self-Harm in the IDF

Shelef, Leah Eyal Fruchter, Dror Ortasse Spiegel, Gal Shoval, J. John Mann, and Gil Zalsma. “Characteristics of Soldiers with Self-Harm in the Israeli Defense Forces.” Archives of Suicide Research 18.4 (2014): 410-418.

 

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13811118.2013.845121

 

Abstract

Suicide is the leading cause of soldier death in the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) in peace time. Suicide attempt (SA) and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are risk factors for death by suicide in civilian studies and therefore their predictive value needs to be determined in the military. All army screening, psychometric and demographic data on consecutive cases of IDF soldier self-harm during the years 2010–2011 were analyzed. The Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale was used retrospectively to classify self-harm as suicidal or NSSI. The Suicide Ideation Scale and the Suicide Intent Scale were scored retrospectively by trained clinical psychologists. A total of 107 soldiers reported self-harm during the study period, comprising 70 SA and 37 with NSSI. The most prevalent diagnosis was personality disorder (n = 48). Soldiers with any mood/anxiety disorders comprised the smallest group (n = 21) and included major depression, dysthymia, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Soldiers with NSSI (n = 37) did not differ in any of the characteristics from those who attempted suicide (n = 70). Unlike the well-known female dominance in both SA and NSSI patients in other settings, males dominated this army sample in both groups. Soldiers with self-harm (both SA and NSSI) cannot be easily distinguished by any demographics or specific psychological attributes detectable at induction, and the scales used in suicide research cannot predict an attempt or NSSI. Unlike civilian samples, males dominated attempter and NSSI groups and the reason for this may be multifactorial. These retrospective findings, if replicated, indicate the need for different screening strategies at induction into the military.

New Book: Grassiani, Soldiering under Occupation

Grassiani, Erella. Soldiering under Occupation. Processes of Numbing among Israeli Soldiers in the Al-Aqsa Intifada. New York and Oxford: Berghahn, 2013.

URL: http://www.berghahnbooks.com/title.php?rowtag=GrassianiSoldiering

Often, violent behavior or harassment from a soldier is dismissed by the military as unacceptable acts by individuals termed, “rotten apples.” In this study, the author argues that this dismissal is unsatisfactory and that there is an urgent need to look at the (mis)behavior of soldiers from a structural point of view. When soldiers serve as an occupational force, they find themselves in a particular situation influenced by structural circumstances that heavily influence their behavior and moral decision-making. This study focuses on young Israeli men and their experiences as combat soldiers in the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF), particularly those who served in the “Occupied Palestinian Territories” (OPT) during the “Al Aqsa Intifada,” which broke out in 2000. In describing the soldiers’ circumstances, especially focusing on space, the study shows how processes of numbing on different levels influence the (moral) behavior of these soldiers.

Table of Contents

List of Figures
Acknowledgements
Preface
Methodology

Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Studying Soldiers
Chapter 3. Checkpoints, Arrests and Patrols: Spaces of Occupation
Chapter 4. Performing as Occupiers: Operational Dynamics
Chapter 5. Tired, Bored and Scared: Emotional, Physical and Cognitive Numbing
Chapter 6. Blurring morals: the numbed moral competence of soldiers
Chapter 7. Morality in Speech: Discursive Strategies of Soldiers
Chapter 8. Conclusion

References

New Article: Shenkman and Shmotkin, Psychological Welfare among Israeli Gay Fathers

Shenkman, Geva and Dov Shmotkin. “‘Kids Are Joy’: Psychological Welfare Among Israeli Gay Fathers.” Journal of Family Issues 35.14 (2014): 1926-1939.

 

URL: http://jfi.sagepub.com/content/35/14/1926

 

Abstract

This study examined the psychological welfare associated with gay men couplehood (being in relationship) and gay fatherhood. From a sample of 204 Israeli gay men (age range 19-79), we compared 45 gay fathers (55.6% of them being in a steady relationship) with 45 individually matched gay men who were not fathers on indicators of psychological welfare, namely, subjective well-being, depressive symptoms (a reverse indicator), and meaning in life. In line with the study hypothesis, the results indicated that couplehood and parenthood were both associated with higher psychological welfare. Whereas the previously reported heterosexual “parenthood paradox” relates parenthood to decreased levels of subjective well-being along with increased levels of meaning in life, the current study suggests that gay fathers have elevated levels of both subjective well-being and meaning in life. We discuss possible interpretations of the findings.

 

New Article: Lavi et al., Protected by Ethos in a Protracted Conflict? A Comparative Study among Israelis and Palestinians

Lavi, Iris, Daphna Canetti, Keren Sharvit, Daniel Bar-Tal, and Stevan E. Hobfoll. “Protected by Ethos in a Protracted Conflict? A Comparative Study among Israelis and Palestinians in the West Bank, Gaza, and East Jerusalem.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 58.1 (2014): 68-92.

URL: http://jcr.sagepub.com/content/58/1/68.abstract

Abstract

Can endorsement of the ethos of conflict alter psychological effects of exposure to political violence? Israelis and Palestinians have been in a state of political and military turmoil for decades. We interviewed 781 Israelis and 1,196 Palestinians living in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem. Using structural equation modeling, we found that among those with a weak adherence to ethos of conflict, exposure predicted higher levels of hatred. For Israelis with a weak adherence to ethos of conflict, exposure predicted higher psychological distress and fear. For Palestinians with weaker adherence to ethos of conflict, stronger exposure predicted stronger threat perceptions. Israelis and Palestinians with a strong adherence to the ethos showed steady and high levels of negative emotions and threat, regardless of exposure. These results indicate that ethos of conflict is a double-edged sword that both protects and protracts the conflict. Although it serves as an engine fueling the conflict, it also plays a meaningful role as an empowering force for people suffering the psychological burden of an ongoing conflict.