Bulletin: Psychology and Psychiatry in Israel

Articles

 

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New Article: Siman-Tov et al, The Social Impact of Terrorism on Civilian Populations

Siman-Tov, Maya, Moran Bodas, and Kobi Peleg. “The Social Impact of Terrorism on Civilian Populations: Lessons Learned from Decades of Terrorism in Israel and Abroad.” Social Science Quarterly 97.1 (2016): 75-85.
 
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1111/ssqu.12254
 
Abstract

Objective: This article considers the sociopsychological implications of terrorism, which are sometimes neglected in preparedness plans. Methods: Using Israeli experiences as a case study, this article briefly reviews four points of connection between terrorism and its psychological and social legacies: the sociopolitical aspects of terrorism, the unexpected nature of terrorism, normalization of terrorism and public resilience, and social aspects of medical care for terror-related injuries. Results: The Israeli experience suggests preparedness plans should include planning for the sociopsychological effects of terrorism on targeted populations and may, in certain contexts, use Israeli approaches as a model. Conclusions: Experience gained in Israel and elsewhere can set the stage for an appropriate response plan striving not only for preparedness but also resilience. Efforts should be made to advance local capabilities, response plans, and resilience by drawing on the experience of others in coping with the terror threat.

 

 

 

New Article: Schiff et al, PTSD Among Female Methadone Patients Who Were Survivors of Sexual Abuse

Schiff, Miriam, Nitsa Nacasch, Shabtay Levit, Noam Katz, and Edna B. Foa. “Prolonged Exposure for Treating PTSD Among Female Methadone Patients Who Were Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Israel.” Social Work in Health Care 54.8 (2015): 687-707.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00981389.2015.1058311

 

Abstract

The aims of this pilot study were: (a) to test the feasibility of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy conducted by a social worker staff on female patients in methadone program clinics who were survivors of child sexual abuse or rape and (b) to examine preliminary outcomes of PE on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and illicit drug use at pre- and posttreatment, and up to 12-month follow-ups. Twelve female methadone patients who were survivors of child sexual abuse or rape diagnosed with PTSD were enrolled in 13–19 weekly individual PE sessions. Assessments were conducted at pre-, mid-, and posttreatment, as well as at 3, 6, and 12-month follow-ups. The treatment outcomes measures included PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and illicit drug use. Ten of the 12 study patients completed treatment. PTSD and depressive symptoms showed significant reduction. No relapse to illicit drug use was detected. These preliminary results suggest that PE may be delivered by methadone social workers with successful outcomes. Further research should test the efficacy of PE among methadone patients in a randomized control trial with standard care as the control condition.

 

 

New Article: Goren & Neter, Stereotypical Thinking and PTSD Symptoms among Israeli Youth

Goren, Chen, and Efrat Neter. “Stereotypical Thinking as a Mediating Factor in the Association between Exposure to Terror and PTSD Symptoms among Israeli Youth.” Anxiety, Stress & Coping (early view; online first).

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URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2016.1138288

 

Abstract

Background and Objectives: The negative impact of exposure to terror on mental health, as well as on the perceptions of each side of the conflict toward the other, is well-documented. However, the association between stereotyping, concomitant with perceived threat, and anxiety, was rarely investigated. The current study examined information processing attributes and exposure to terror as predictors of PTSD symptoms among youth at inter-group conflict, with stereotypical thinking toward a threatening out-group as a possible mediator. Design: Cross-sectional, with exposure to terror, need for cognitive structure (NCS), efficacy at fulfilling the need for closure (EFNC) and self-esteem, predicting stereotypical thinking and PTSD symptoms. Method: Ninth graders (N = 263) from two residential areas in Israel, varying in their degree of exposure to terror, responded to a self-report questionnaire tapping the above variables. Results: Stereotypical thinking was found to mediate the association between exposure to terror and PTSD symptoms, but not the association between the NCS and EFNC interaction and PTSD symptoms. Conclusions: The findings support Terror Management Theory, so that a negative and rigid perception makes it difficult to construct coherent world-view, thus contributing to aggregation of existential anxiety and PTSD symptoms.

 

 

 

New Article: Schreiber, Building an Emergency Mental Health System for Israel

Schreiber, Merritt D. “Toward the Way Forward: Building an Emergency Mental Health System for Israel.” Israel Journal of Health Policy Research (early view; online first).

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13584-015-0038-3

 

Abstract

A number of related changes have evolved over the past 25 years: the development of a truly national disaster mental health service in Israel; progress in the science of risk, resilience and evidence base care for those suffering from traumatic stress related disorders; and the development of conceptual models of population level disaster mental health response in the context of emergency management systems such as the Incident Command System.
In a recent IJHPR article, Bodas, et al. report on the dynamic history of disaster mental health response in Israel, which informed by the all too numerous real world events affecting the region. What is most striking is that the system now in place reflects true “lessons learned” in that problems and issues identified in incidents informed deliberative planning, and the current system reflects many iterations of “lessons observed and learned”. There appears to be commitment across sectors of government in Israel that the mental health consequences of disasters and terrorism are important and a priority. This is advanced thinking and sound policy.
As the system in Israel continues to evolve, additional possibilities are offered for further consideration, based on the author’s US-centric experience, to advance emergency response systems in Israel, the Middle East and around the world.

 

 

New Article: Zerach et al, The Role of Fathers’ Psychopathology in the Intergenerational Transmission of Captivity Trauma

Zerach, Gadi, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon, Roy Aloni, and Zahava Solomon. “The Role of Fathers’ Psychopathology in the Intergenerational Transmission of Captivity Trauma: A Twenty Three-Year Longitudinal Study.” Journal of Affective Disorders 190 (2016): 84-92.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.09.072

 

Abstract

Background

The aversive impact of combat and parents’ combat-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on young children has been examined in a few studies. However, the long-term toll of war captivity on the secondary traumatization (ST) of adult offspring remains unknown. This study aimed to assess the longitudinal associations between former prisoners of war (ex-POWs), PTSD, depressive symptoms and their adult offsprings ST.

Method

A sample of 134 Israeli father-child dyads (80 ex-POWs dyads and a comparison group of 44 veterans’dyads) completed self-report measures. The fathers participated in three waves of measurements following the Yom Kippur War (T1: 1991, T2: 2003, and T3: 2008), while the offspring took part in T4 (2013).

Results

Offspring of ex-POWs with PTSD at T3 reported more ST symptoms than offspring of ex-POWs without PTSD and controls. Ex-POWs’ PTSD hyper-arousal symptom cluster at T3 was positively related to offsprings ST avoidance symptom cluster. Offspring of ex-POWs with chronic and delayed PTSD trajectories reported more ST symptoms than offspring of ex-POWS and controls with resilient trajectories. Ex-POWs’ PTSD and depression symptoms at T1, T2 and T3 mediated the link between war captivity (groups) and offsprings ST in T4.

Limitations

The use of self-report measures that did not cover the entire span of 40 years since the war, might may bias the results.

Conclusions

The intergenerational transmission of captivity related trauma following the Yom Kippur War was exemplified. ST symptoms among ex-POWs’ adult offspring are closely related to their father’ PTSD and related depressive symptom comorbidity.

 

 

 

New Article: Katz, On Yoram Kaniuk’s Peripatetic Palmaḥnik

Katz, Stephen. “After the Shooting: On Yoram Kaniuk’s Peripatetic Palmaḥnik.” Shofar 34.1 (2015): 27-56.

 

URL: https://muse.jhu.edu/journals/shofar/v034/34.1.katz.html

 

Abstract

Wounded in body and spirit following his participation in Israel’s War of Independence, Yoram Kaniuk’s (1930–2013) protagonist of several key and stylistically sophisticated America-centered novels escapes to the New World. There, seeking a haven for recuperation and finding his identity, he exhibits some of the unheroic qualities that are a manifestation of his upbringing, of the mythological and unsavory sabra, or are the mirror of the fragmented social circle of acquaintances he makes in New York. Seeking an identity, he attempts to own the New World, doing so by attempts at conquest—of women, financial stability, or climbing the ladder of social hierarchy. In terms of women, he fails at exhibiting a lasting commitment with any. He fails at maintaining a successful career, while the “aristocracy” with which he affiliates turns out to be flawed and decaying. So while he meets some of New York’s rich and famous, he finds no model whom to emulate among them. None of these avenues bring any succor to him emotionally, spiritually, or physically from the trauma of the war memories that continue to haunt him and as he continues to search for a place to call home. Realizing the futility of it all, the protagonist escapes to other realms, mostly by returning to Israel in the expectation of finding a modus vivendi there with his memories and the reality of the new society.

 

 

New Article: Wolmer et al, Preschool Israeli Children Exposed to Rocket Attacks

Wolmer, Leo, Daniel Hamiel, Tali Versano-Eisman, Michelle Slone, Nitzan Margalit, and Nathaniel Laor. “Preschool Israeli Children Exposed to Rocket Attacks: Assessment, Risk, and Resilience.” Journal of Traumatic Stress (early view; online first).

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.22040

 

Abstract

Preschool children are among the most vulnerable populations to adversity. This study described the effects of 4 weeks of daily exposure to rocket attacks on children living on Israel’s southern border. Participants enrolled in this study were 122 preschool children (50% boys) between the ages 3 and 6 years from 10 kindergartens. We assessed mothers’ report of children’s symptoms according to the DSM-IV and alternative criteria resembling the DSM-5 criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), general adaptation, traumatic exposure, and stressful life events 3 months after the war. The prevalence of PTSD was lower when the diagnosis was derived from the DSM-IV (4%) than from the DSM-5 criteria (14%). Mothers of children with 4 or more stressful life events reported more functional impairment in social, occupational, and other important areas of functioning compared to children with 0 or 1 stressful life event. Children with more severe exposure showed more severe symptoms and mothers had more concerns about the child’s functioning (ηp2 = .09–.25). Stressful life events and exposure to traumatic experiences accounted for 32% of the variance in PTSD and 19% of the variance in the adaptation scale. Results were explored in terms of risk and resilience factors.

 

 

New Article: Slone and Mayer, Gender Differences in Mental Health Consequences of Exposure to Political Violence

Slone, Michelle, and Yael Mayer. “Gender Differences in Mental Health Consequences of Exposure to Political Violence among Israeli Adolescents.” Children and Youth Services Review 58 (2015): 170-178.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2015.09.013

 

Abstract

This study examined the role played by gender differences in the relation between political violence exposure and mental health during adolescence. Understanding these differences is particularly pertinent during the period of adolescence characterized as it is by processes of identity formation and gender role consolidation. Participants were 154 high school students recruited from two high schools in central Israel (78 males, 76 females; average age 16.54), who completed the Political Life Events Scale for measurement of political violence exposure, the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 for assessment of psychological symptoms and disorders, a risk-taking behavior scale, and the Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Scale — Interview (PSS-I) for assessment of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results reflected high levels on many psychological indicators. The dose–response hypothesis was partially confirmed with adolescents’ higher reported political violence exposure related only to higher levels of somatization and greater severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Contrary to the literature, only a few gender differences emerged and these showed mixed patterns. Females showed higher levels of anxiety than males, and males showed higher levels of risk-taking behavior. Females exposed to low political violence exposure showed significantly less substance abuse than males but those with high exposure reported significantly higher levels of substance abuse, equivalent to those of males. Findings show a complex constellation of gender effects on relations between political violence exposure and different psychopathological outcomes. Findings of this study indicate the necessity for more refined examination of gender differences in psychological processes in reaction to living in conditions of protracted conflict and war.

 

 

New Article: Ron, Impact of Military Operations on Philippine Migrant Care Workers

Ron, Pnina. “It Is Not Their War: The Impact of Military Operations on Philippine Migrant Care Workers for Elderly People in Israel.” Clinical Interventions in Aging 10 (2015): 1053-61.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S77886

 

Abstract

Objective: A majority of work immigrants from the Philippines came to Israel to fill positions involving personal and nursing care. Most of them were in Israel during the Second Lebanon War, the Cast Lead operation, and the Protective Edge Operation. These migrant care workers experienced these events no differently than did the Israeli population. The goal of this study was to examine the connections between the Philippine migrant care workers’ exposure to the military operations and the levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), death anxiety, and burnout among them. Methods: A random sample of 147 Philippine migrant care workers was recruited through four agencies that employ migrant care workers. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire. Results: Philippine migrant care workers reported high levels of PTSD, high levels of death anxiety, and low levels of burnout. Levels of exposure were positively associated with levels of PTSD, death anxiety, and negatively with burnout. A significant inverse relationship was found between interpersonal variables (self-esteem and sense of mastery) and the PTSD, death anxiety, and burnout levels reported by the participants.

 

 

New Article: Halperin et al, The Influence of Childbirth on PPD: A Comparison between Israeli Jewish and Arab Women

Halperin, Ofra, Orly Sarid, and Julie Cwikel. “The Influence of Childbirth Experiences on Women׳s Postpartum Traumatic Stress Symptoms: A Comparison between Israeli Jewish and Arab Women.” Midwifery 31.6 (2015): 625-32.

 
 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2015.02.011

 

Abstract

Background

childbirth is a positive experience for most women yet some women express distress after birth. Traumatic experience can sometimes cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relation to childbirth. Prevalence of traumatic birth experience and PTSD after childbirth differs between cultures.

Objectives

to examine the subjective recall of childbirth experiences and PTSD symptoms of Israeli Jewish and Arab women; to examine comparatively the prevalence of PTSD symptoms six to eight weeks after childbirth and to establish the factors that predict PTSD symptoms.

Methods

a prospective study was conducted in a region characterised by wide variations in ethnocultural groups. The study was comprised of two time points: Time 1 (T1) interviews were conducted at the bedside of the women in the maternity ward of each hospital 24–48 hours after childbirth. Time 2 (T2), all 171 women participating in T1 were interviewed by phone six to eight weeks after childbirth.

Findings

34 women (19.9%) reported their labour as traumatic 24–48 hours after birth (T1), and six to eight weeks later (T2) 67 women (39.2%) assessed their experience as traumatic. More Arab women (69.6%) than Jewish women (56.5%) had a positive memory of childbirth, but this difference only approached statistical significance (p=.09). Results showed rather low frequencies of PTSD symptoms, and no ethnic difference. PTSD symptoms were significantly and positively predicted by subjective recollection of childbirth experience (Time 2). PTSD symptoms were higher for women who did not have a vaginal birth, and more women with PTSD symptoms were not breast feeding.

Conclusions

we found more similarities than differences between Arab and Jewish women׳s experience of their births and no differences between them on the prevalence of PTSD symptoms after birth. The results suggest that non-vaginal birth (instrumental or caesarean section) and negative recollection of the childbirth experience are important factors related to the development of PTSD symptoms after birth, and that women with PTSD symptoms are less likely to breast feed.

New Article: Stein and Tuval-Mashiach, Loneliness of Israeli Veterans of Combat and Captivity

Stein, Jacob Y., and Rivka Tuval-Mashiach. “Loneliness and Isolation in Life-Stories of Israeli Veterans of Combat and Captivity.” Psychological Trauma 7.2 (2015): 122-30.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036936

 

Abstract

Loneliness holds detrimental ramifications for health and well-being. Nevertheless, loneliness references in the literature addressing combat-related trauma are few. Consequentially, the qualities and characteristics of such experiences in these posttraumatic realities remain uninvestigated empirically. In the current qualitative study we began filling this gap in the literature. We utilized thematic content analysis of life-stories of 19 combat veterans and 7 ex-POWs that have given testimony at the Israel Trauma Center for Victims of Terror and War (NATAL). Our findings suggest that the loneliness in the contexts at hand is primarily characterized by a sense of experiential isolation, rather than social, emotional, or existential. This is the sensation that due to the extraordinary nature of traumatic experiences the fulfillment of needs such as empathy and intersubjectivity may be unattainable. Integrating our findings with existing interdisciplinary literature regarding social sharing, trauma, and loneliness, we discuss implications for clinical interventions and further research.

New Article: Dan et al, Differences in State Anxiety Responses to Combat Pictures between Young Adult Israeli Jews and Israeli Palestinian Arabs

Dan, Orrie,  Yona Moshe David, Michal Abraham, and Dorit Hadar Souval. “Differences in State Anxiety Responses to Combat Pictures between Young Adult Israeli Jews and Israeli Palestinian Arabs.” Psychology 6 (2015): 1136-43.

 

URL: http://www.scirp.org/Journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=58194
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/psych.2015.69111 (PDF)

 

Abstract

The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether the different political realities of Israeli Jewish citizens and of Israeli Palestinian Arab citizens had differential impacts on the situational anxiety elicited by video clips of military operations. The pictures were taken during the November 2012 Pillar of Defense military operation in Gaza and southern Israel. Participants included 75 (49 female) students at an Israeli college. Of these, 39 were Israeli Jews and 36 were Israeli Arabs. Participants completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, 1983) and then watched a video clip containing combat pictures. After that they completed the State Anxiety Inventory again. The results showed no differences between Israeli Jewish participants and Israeli Palestinian Arab participants on trait anxiety. Analysis revealed a significant group (Israeli Jews/ Israeli Palestinian Arabs) X condition (before/after watching the video clip pictures) interaction effect. Before watching the video clip, the groups exhibited no difference in state anxiety. After watching the clip, the Israeli Palestinian Arab participants showed greater state anxiety compared with the Israeli Jews.

New Article: Israel-Cohen et al, Gratitude and PTSD Symptoms among Israeli Youth Exposed to Missile Attacks

Israel-Cohen, Yael, Florina Uzefovsky, Gabriela Kashy-Rosenbaum, and Oren Kaplan. “Gratitude and PTSD Symptoms among Israeli Youth Exposed to Missile Attacks: Examining the Mediation of Positive and Negative Affect and Life Satisfaction.” Journal of Positive Psychology 10.2 (2015): 99-106.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2014.927910

 

Abstract

Based on a sample of Israeli adolescents living in a city which was under missile attack 2½ months prior to this study, we examined the possible affective and cognitive mechanisms through which gratitude may serve as a protective factor against PTSD symptoms. Specifically, we focused on how this process might be mediated by positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction. These are widely understood as the emotional and cognitive components of subjective well-being and have each been significantly associated with gratitude and with pathology in the literature. Using pathway analysis, our findings revealed that life satisfaction and negative affect, but not positive affect, mediated the relationship between gratitude and PTSD symptoms. Our study suggests that gratitude may serve as a protective factor primarily through cognitive appraisal processes tied to greater appreciation of life in a way that distinguishes it from other positive emotions.

 

New Article: Gil et al, Risk Factors for DSM 5 PTSD Symptoms in Israeli Civilians

Gil, Sharon, Michael Weinberg, Keren Or-Chen, and Hila Harel. “Risk Factors for DSM 5 PTSD Symptoms in Israeli Civilians during the Gaza War.” Brain and Behavior 5.4 (2015).

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.316

 

Abstract

Background

In light of the current modifications presented in the diagnostic criteria of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the DSM 5, this study aimed at revalidating well-known PTSD risk factors, including gender, peritraumatic dissociation, social support, level of threat, and trait tendency for forgiveness.

Method

Five hundred and one Israeli civilians were assessed during real-time exposure to missile and rocket fire at the eruption of the Gaza war. Assessments took place approximately one to 2 weeks after the beginning of this military operation, relying on web administration of the study, which allowed simultaneous data collection from respondents in the three regions in Israel that were under attack.

Results

A structural equation model design revealed that higher levels of forgiveness toward situations were associated with fewer PTSD symptoms, whereas peritraumatic dissociation and high levels of objective and subjective threat were positively associated with PTSD symptoms. Additionally, females were at higher risk for PTSD symptoms than males.

Conclusions

The findings of this study provide further evidence for the importance of directing preventive attention to those vulnerable to the development of elevated levels of PTSD symptoms. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

New Book: Safir et al., Future Directions in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Safir, Marilyn P., Helene S. Wallach, and Albert Rizzo, eds. Future Directions in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment. New York: Springer, 2015.

 

springer_

 

Ours is an era of increasing tension, both global and local. And not surprisingly, PTSD is recognized not only in combat veterans and active military personnel, but also disaster and assault survivors across the demographic spectrum. As current events from mass shootings to the debate over trigger warnings keep the issue in the public eye, the disorder remains a steady concern among researchers and practitioners.

Future Directions in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder presents findings and ideas with the potential to influence both our conceptualization of the condition and the techniques used to address it. A multidisciplinary panel of experts offers new analyses of risk and resilience factors, individual and group approaches to prevention, the evolving process of diagnosis, and effective treatment and delivery. Chapters on treatment allow readers to compare widely-used prolonged exposure and VR methods with innovative applications of cognitive processing therapy and interpersonal therapy. And an especially compelling contribution surveys empirically-based programs relating to what for many is the emblematic trauma of our time, the events of September 11, 2001. Included in the coverage:

  • Predictors of vulnerability to PTSD: neurobiological and genetic risk factors.
  • Early intervention: is prevention better than cure?
  • The functional neuroanatomy of PTSD.
  • The development of evidence-based treatment for PTSD.
  • Enhancing exposure therapy using D-Cycloserine (DCS).
  • PLUS: a case example as seen through five therapeutic perspectives.

While millions experience trauma, relatively few develop chronic PTSD. Future Directions in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a practical and proactive reference for the health and clinical psychologists, sociologists, psychiatrists, and primary care physicians dedicated to further decreasing those numbers.

 

Table of contents

  • Vulnerability to PTSD: Psychosocial and Demographic Risk and Resilience Factors

    Bar-Shai, Marina (et al.)

    Pages 3-30

  • Neurobiological Risk Factors and Predictors of Vulnerability and Resilience to PTSD

    Bar-Shai, Marina (et al.)

    Pages 31-63

  • The Early Adolescent or “Juvenile Stress” Translational Animal Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Richter-Levin, Gal (et al.)

    Pages 65-77

  • An Attachment Perspective on Traumatic and Posttraumatic Reactions

    Mikulincer, Mario (et al.)

    Pages 79-96 

  • Delayed-Onset PTSD in Israeli Combat Veterans: Correlates, Clinical Picture, and Controversy

    Horesh, Danny (et al.)

    Cutting Edge Research on Prevention of PTSD

    Kearns, Megan C. (et al.)

    Pages 133-153

  • Systems of Care for Traumatized Children: The Example of a School-Based Intervention Model

    Brom, Danny (et al.)

    Pages 155-169

  • Is Prevention Better than Cure? How Early Interventions Can Prevent PTSD

    Freedman, Sara A. (et al.)

    Pages 171-186

  • Evolution of PTSD Diagnosis in the

    Echterling, Lennis G. (et al.)

    Pages 189-212

  • Functional Neuroanatomy of PTSD: Developmental Cytoarchitectonic Trends, Memory Systems, and Control Processes

    Gilboa, Asaf

    Pages 213-241

  • Prolonged Exposure Treatment

    Nacasch, Nitsa (et al.)

    Pages 245-251

  • Cognitive Processing Therapy: Beyond the Basics

    Chard, Kathleen M. (et al.)

    Pages 253-262

  • Interpersonal Psychotherapy for PTSD

    Rafaeli, Alexandra Klein (et al.)

    Pages 263-272

  • Inclusion of Virtual Reality: A Rationale for the Use of VR in the Treatment of PTSD

    García-Palacios, Azucena (et al.)

    Pages 275-287


  • Initial Development and Dissemination of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Combat-Related PTSD

    Reger, Greg M. (et al.)

    Pages 289-302

  • Update and Expansion of the Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan PTSD Exposure Therapy System

    Rizzo, Albert (et al.)

    Pages 303-328

  • Mental Health Problems and Treatment Utilization of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans Enrolled in Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care

    Seal, Karen H. (et al.)

    Pages 329-345

  • Enhancing Exposure Therapy for PTSD Using

    Burton, Mark S. (et al.)

    Pages 347-365

  • Implementation of Evidence-Based Assessment, Treatment, and Research Programs Following the World Trade Center Disaster on September 11, 2001

    Olden, Megan (et al.)

    Pages 367-387

  • Case Presentation of a Chronic Combat PTSD Veteran

    Nacasch, Nitsa (et al.)

    Pages 391-409

  • Matching Treatment to Patients Suffering from PTSD: What We Know and Especially What We Don’t Know

    Wallach, Helene S.

    Pages 411-415

  • Erratum to: Case Presentation of a Chronic Combat PTSD Veteran

 

New Book: Friedman-Peleg, A Nation on the Couch. The Politics of Trauma in Israel (in Hebrew)

פרידמן-פלג, קרן. העם על הספה. הפוליטיקה של הטראומה בישראל, ספריית אשכולות. ירושלים: מאגנס, 2014.

 

magnes

 

URL: http://www.magnespress.co.il/

 

Abstract

This book is an invitation to observe the practice of one of the most dominant communities in Israel, and yet one of its most closed ones: the therapeutic community. Through a four-year anthropological field work (2004-2008) among two of the most prominent associations in Israel – Natal (“Israel’s Trauma Center for Victims of Terror and War”) and the “Israel Trauma Coalition” – the chapters of this book trace the inevitable intersection between professional questions of clinical diagnosis, treatment and prevention of PTSD in the context of the Israeli-Arab conflict with political question of group identity and power relations: what differences exist between therapists on the meaning of traumatic experiences and its moral boundaries? What consensus is reached regarding practices of aid and funds allocation, and what is the connection between it and the questions of group identity; including political, ethnic, and social class aspects?

This ethnographic journey will shed light on the development of politics around the therapeutic practice of trauma in two sequential instances: (1) the institutional instance will address the establishment of a new therapeutic home, through the extraordinary juncture of therapists, donors and advertisers; (2) the professional instance will present the branching of four circles of therapeutic occupation of trauma: the “clinical core” among soldiers; the practice of the tense relationship between “primary” trauma of a man and the “secondary” trauma of a woman, his spouse; the growing distance from the “clinical mothership,” for the sake of intervention among “risk groups” from Be’er-Sheva in the South to Daliyat al-Karmel in the north; and the emphasis on the prevention of trauma, through activities such as “strength and immunity” in Sderot. These examinations will demonstrate how the therapeutic practice is far from representing a single objective reality with a clear professional truth. Instead, it will reveal the existence of a polyphonic and multi-participant network of reciprocities surrounding the therapeutic practice of trauma, between various social locations and diverse worldviews.

Dissertation: de la Fontaine, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and War Narratives of Israeli Soldiers

de la Fontaine, Naama, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Social Support and the Role of Ideology as Evident in the War Narratives of Israeli Soldiers. Adelphi University, 2013.

 

URL: http://search.proquest.com/docview/1513380504

 

Abstract

The detrimental effects of war exposure on soldiers’ wellbeing have been documented since the dawn of written narrative. However, the negative impact of trauma, and particularly war trauma, on soldiers’ mental health functioning and wellbeing has historically been overlooked by the psychiatric field at best, and met with antipathy and contempt at worst. This, along with various other social and cultural factors, has shaped the understanding and treatment of veterans for decades. At present, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as related mental health difficulties are well recognized as possible outcomes of war exposure among military personnel, yet the role of potential protective and risk factors in this population calls for further exploration. The ongoing rise in political conflict worldwide, along with the large numbers of soldiers impacted by war, emphasizes the need for studies that offer a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of soldiers’ experiences at war and upon homecoming. Israel, a country facing ongoing political turmoil, serves as a paradigm for understanding the complex interaction of personal, cultural, religious, and political factors that are thought to contribute to one’s ability to cope with traumatic events. The current study aimed to contribute to the existing literature documenting the impact of war experience on soldiers’ wellbeing by gaining insight into the lived experiences of soldiers. Specifically, this study sought to examine post-traumatic symptoms and mental health functioning in Israeli veterans of the 2006 Second Lebanon War, assessing participants’ post war mental health functioning, as well as their perception of various potential sources of support and the degree to which social factors played a role in soldiers’ motivation to fight, at-war coping, and adjustment post-war. Given the unique climate of military service in Israel, the study also sought to understand the role of religious, spiritual and political ideologies in motivating soldiers and allowing them to cope with war-related experiences. To this end, participants completed semi-structured interviews targeting these questions. Participants’ narratives were analyzed utilizing a qualitative method of analysis (Le., Consensual Qualitative Research) from which emerged many domains and categories capturing the most frequent topics and content of participants’ responses. Results of the current study captured the most prevalent experiences described by participants. The majority of participants reported experiencing some PTSD symptoms, yet denied feeling anger or irritability. Participants differentiated between various sources of support and most denied that ideologies played a significant role in their war experiences. Social support, and particularly relationships with fellow soldiers, was found to offer greater motivation to fight, and to serve as a greater source of coping both during and after war than did ideological beliefs. Nevertheless, many participants described post war change related to spiritual beliefs and existential growth. These findings are important in guiding clinical intervention for soldiers participate in war. Findings are preliminary and lead to the emergence of a multitude of follow up questions; thus, future research assessing soldiers’ experiences during and following war is warranted.

 

Subject: Mental health; Psychology; Military studies

Classification: 0347: Mental health; 0621: Psychology; 0750: Military studies

Identifier / keyword: Social sciences, Psychology, Health and environmental sciences, trauma, Soldiers, War, Social support, Spirituality, Narratives

Number of pages: 269

Publication year: 2013

Degree date: 2013

School code: 0830

Source: DAI-B 75/06(E), Dec 2014

Place of publication: Ann Arbor

Country of publication: United States

ISBN: 9781303809668

Advisor: Szymanski, Kate

University/institution: Adelphi University, The Institute of Advanced Psychological Studies

University location: United States — New York

Degree: Ph.D.

Source type: Dissertations & Theses

Language: English

Document type: Dissertation/Thesis

Dissertation/thesis number: 3579778

ProQuest document ID: 1513380504

 

New Article: Shelef et al, Characteristics of Soldiers with Self-Harm in the IDF

Shelef, Leah Eyal Fruchter, Dror Ortasse Spiegel, Gal Shoval, J. John Mann, and Gil Zalsma. “Characteristics of Soldiers with Self-Harm in the Israeli Defense Forces.” Archives of Suicide Research 18.4 (2014): 410-418.

 

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13811118.2013.845121

 

Abstract

Suicide is the leading cause of soldier death in the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) in peace time. Suicide attempt (SA) and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are risk factors for death by suicide in civilian studies and therefore their predictive value needs to be determined in the military. All army screening, psychometric and demographic data on consecutive cases of IDF soldier self-harm during the years 2010–2011 were analyzed. The Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale was used retrospectively to classify self-harm as suicidal or NSSI. The Suicide Ideation Scale and the Suicide Intent Scale were scored retrospectively by trained clinical psychologists. A total of 107 soldiers reported self-harm during the study period, comprising 70 SA and 37 with NSSI. The most prevalent diagnosis was personality disorder (n = 48). Soldiers with any mood/anxiety disorders comprised the smallest group (n = 21) and included major depression, dysthymia, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Soldiers with NSSI (n = 37) did not differ in any of the characteristics from those who attempted suicide (n = 70). Unlike the well-known female dominance in both SA and NSSI patients in other settings, males dominated this army sample in both groups. Soldiers with self-harm (both SA and NSSI) cannot be easily distinguished by any demographics or specific psychological attributes detectable at induction, and the scales used in suicide research cannot predict an attempt or NSSI. Unlike civilian samples, males dominated attempter and NSSI groups and the reason for this may be multifactorial. These retrospective findings, if replicated, indicate the need for different screening strategies at induction into the military.