• “Particularism vs. universalism” adds a useful dimension to the tourism and leisure of hiking.
• Hiking is composed of two different systems: universalistic and particularistic.
• The dominant features of hiking the Israel National Trail are ‘communitas’, and ‘place attachment’.
• The varied multi-dimensional aspects of hiking could be located on a scale.
A major limitation of most urban and environmental studies dealing with place attachment and place identity is that they are mostly restricted to neighborhood. There is a general assumption that neighborhood is the fundamental category of analysis to study attachment and identity. However, except for a few studies focusing on environments such as dwellings, other spatial scales still need to be explored. This gap exists despite the fact that the intensity of attachment and identity bonds established with place are supposedly affected by the size of the environment. In order to explore differences in the relation between the two bonds and the size of the environment, we carried out a study in neighborhoods and cities. We further investigated possible differences in place attachment and place identity between residents who were born in the city and residents originally from other cities. The sample involved 208 participants (54.8% natives and 45.2% from other cities). Results showed a higher level of attachment and identity to city than to neighborhood. Place attachment was higher in large and small-sized cities than in medium-sized. Place identity, on the other hand, was greater in large rather than in small and medium-sized cities. In addition, a positive correlation was found between the two bonds and the length of residence in the city. However, having been born in the city or not did not affect the intensity of bonds with place. Implications for urban planning are suggested.
Place attachment and place identity were higher in the city than in the neighborhood.
Place attachment was higher in large and small size cities than in medium-sized ones.
Place identity was superior in large cities than in the small and medium-sized ones.
A positive correlation was found between place identity and place attachment and the length of residence in the city.
Having or not having been born in the city did not affect the intensity of bonds with place.