This article addresses an aspect of Egypt’s 2011 revolution almost entirely ignored in most Western media accounts: Israel and Palestine as prominent themes of protest. In reviewing Egyptian mobilization opposing normalization nad in support of the Palestinian cause starting from Sadat’s peace initiative of the mid-1970s, the author shows how the anti-Mubarak movement that took off as of the mid-2000s built on the Palestine activism and networks already in place. While the trigger of the revolution and the focus of its first eighteen days was domestic change, the article shows how domestic and foreign policy issues (especially Israel and Palestine) were inextricably intertwined, with the leadership bodies of the revolution involved in both.
President Jimmy Carter’s loss of the Jewish vote in the 1980 election demonstrated the influence of domestic politics on foreign policy-making in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Carter’s comprehensive plan for peace in the Middle East, especially his support for a Palestinian homeland, put him at odds with the leadership in the American Jewish community. The successes of the Camp David Accords could not turn this around. His loss of a substantial portion of the Jewish vote demonstrated his unwillingness to deal with ethnic politics, his failure to comprehend this politically important group and their concerns about the survival of Israel, his political miscalculations, and his faith in his own appraisal of conditions in the Middle East.
The article deals with Golda Meir, who was a prominent leader of Israel and the Prime Minister during the Yom Kippur War (1973). Its main points are: Her road towards the national leadership during the “Yishuv” period. Her political role under David Ben-Gurion and Levi Eshkol as Minister of Labor (1949-1956) and Minister of Foreign Affairs (1956-1966) Meir as political leader: the way she lead her party and how she was a symbol of the national agreement Meir as diplomatic leader: her attitude during the negotiation attempt with Egypt (The Secretary of the State’s Plan – 1970 ; Moshe Dayan’s intention to open the Suez Canal – 1971) Meir as social leader: the strengthening of the welfare – state Meir during the Yom Kippur War: The War as a result of her policy; Her leadership during the crisis.
Primakov, Yevgeny. Russia and the Arabs. New York: Basic Books (of the Perseus Books Group), 2009.
Keywords: Russia: Middle East Policy, USSR / Soviet Union, 1967 war, 1973 War, Six Day War, Yom Kippur War, Peace: with Egypt, Lebanon, Israeli-Arab Conflict, Israeli-Palestinian conflict, USA: Middle East Policy, Israel: Nuclear Weapons, Iraq, Iran: Nuclear Weapons, Yasser Arafat, Saddam Hussein
Meiri-Dann, Naomi and Shmuel Meiri. "Between Victory and Destruction: The Changing Narrative of the Division of Steel Memorial." Journal of Israeli History 28,2 (2009): 213-230.
The monument to the 180 Division of Steel soldiers who fell in the Sinai Peninsula during the Six Day War was erected on the outskirts of the young city of Yamit ten years after that war. This article shows how the changing narratives of this monument reflect the events that Israel, and especially this area, have experienced during the last thirty years. Although located on the site of a Six Day War battlefield, this monument, from the outset, became associated with Yamit. In April 1982 the memorial was the last stronghold of the opponents to Israel’s evacuation of Sinai according to the peace treaty with Egypt. Demolished shortly after the evacuation, the ruins of the memorial turned into an icon of the end of the Jewish settlements in Sinai. Shortly afterwards, a replica of the monument was erected within Israel, in the western Negev. The new monument, along with the remains of demolished houses from Yamit that were placed nearby, constitutes a complex memorial to the evacuated settlements, while the Six Day War remains as a dim background memory.
————— Keywords: Six Day War; war memorials; Sinai; Yamit; collective memory; pilgrimage, נעמי מאירי-דן, שמאול מאירי