Cite: Ben-Bassat, Rural Reactions to Zionist Activity in Palestine before and after the Young Turk Revolution

Ben-Bassat, Yuval. “Rural Reactions to Zionist Activity in Palestine before and after the Young Turk Revolution of 1908 as Reflected in Petitions to Istanbul.” Middle Eastern Studies 49.3 (2013): 349-63.




The central Ottoman archives in Istanbul provide a unique bottom-up
perspective on the early Zionist-Arab encounters in Palestine at the end
of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the interactions
between the rural population and the first Zionist colonists. This
perspective is somewhat different from the customary outlook in the
literature on early Arab reactions to Zionist activity which has
primarily focused on the reactions of the educated urban elites in the
aftermath of the Young Turk revolution of 1908. This study discusses
five petitions sent by the rural population of Palestine, both villagers
and Bedouins, against Jewish activity and its impact on them. The
petitions by these understudied subaltern groups reveal the complexities
of the encounters between the two populations prior to the development
of the political struggle in Palestine, and add a new dimension to the
more familiar viewpoint provided by Zionist and European sources. This
article thus seeks to examine the extent to which the revolution, which
is commonly considered a watershed for the start of the Jewish-Arab
political struggle, is reflected in these petitions. It also inquires
whether there was a change of tone in the petitions following the
revolution and, if so, what can be learned from them regarding the
nature of Jewish-Arab relationships at the time.

ToC: Israel Studies 18.1 (2013)

Israel Studies 18.1 (2013), Table of Contents:



    The De-politicization of Israeli Political Cartoons (pp. 1-30)

    Maya Balakirsky Katz

    DOI: 10.2979/israelstudies.18.1.1

    Stable URL:


    From “Great History” to “Small History”: The Genesis of the Zionist Periodization (pp. 31-55)

    Hizky Shoham

    DOI: 10.2979/israelstudies.18.1.31

    Stable URL:


     American “Welfare Politics”: American Involvement in Jerusalem During World War I (pp. 56-76)

    Abigail Jacobson

    DOI: 10.2979/israelstudies.18.1.56

    Stable URL:


    All Quiet on the Eastern Front; Israel and the Issue of Reparations from East-Germany, 1951–1956 (pp. 77-100)

    Jacob Tovy

    DOI: 10.2979/israelstudies.18.1.77

    Stable URL:


    Palestinian Armed Struggle, Israel’s Peace Camp, and the Unique Case of Fatah-Jerusalem (pp. 101-123)

    Hillel Cohen

    DOI: 10.2979/israelstudies.18.1.101

    Stable URL:


    The Arab Minority in Israel; Challenges and Limits in Recent Disciplinary Approaches (pp. 124-145)

    Oded Haklai

    DOI: 10.2979/israelstudies.18.1.124

    Stable URL:


    Shaping Israeli-Arab Identity in Hebrew Words—The Case of Sayed Kashua (pp. 146-169)

    Batya Shimony

    DOI: 10.2979/israelstudies.18.1.146

    Stable URL:


     “The Hand of Esau in the Midst Here Too”—Uri Zvi Grinberg’s Poem “A Great Fear and the Moon” in Its Historical and Political Contexts (pp. 170-193)

    Tamar Wolf-Monzon

    DOI: 10.2979/israelstudies.18.1.170

    Stable URL:

  9. Notes on Contributors (pp. 194-195)

    DOI: 10.2979/israelstudies.18.1.194

    Stable URL:

  10. Guidelines for Contributors (pp. 196-198)

    DOI: 10.2979/israelstudies.18.1.196

    Stable URL:

Cite: Kark & Frantzman, Empire, State and the Bedouin of the Middle East

Kark, Ruth and Seth J. Frantzman. “Empire, State and the Bedouin of the Middle East, Past and Present: A Comparative Study of Land and Settlement Policies.” Middle Eastern Studies 48.4 (2012): 487-510.





The Bedouin of the Middle East have been one of the region’s most marginalized groups in modern times. This study assesses the interplay between state policies and the Bedouin in the last 150 years, from a comparative standpoint. We examine the development of land laws in the Middle East as they have affected the Bedouin, from the enactment of the Ottoman land laws of 1858 up to the present. Moreover we explore whether the land laws and the fate of the Bedouin are associated with the characteristics of the regime in each country. We find that the imposition of land laws and policies directed at nomadic and sedentarizing Bedouins has depended on disparate factors such as the origins of the leadership of countries (i.e. Bedouin or non-Bedouin) and the social and economic models embraced. Regimes with origins in the tribal-Bedouin fabric of the Middle East have pursued land policies that were favorable to the Bedouin, whereas regimes drawing their strength from urban elites and with socialist outlooks encouraged very different policies. We also consider whether the case of the Bedouin in Israel is unique or reflects a larger regional context.

ToC: Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 41, No. 3 (Spring 2012)

Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 41, No. 3 (Spring 2012)




 Front Matter


 Table of Contents


 From the Editor

Author(s): Rashid I. Khalidi

p. 5


 Western Interests, Israeli Unilateralism, and the Two-State Solution

Author(s): Neve Gordon; Yinon Cohen

pp. 6-18

Abstract: This essay analyzes the impact of Israeli unilateralism—specifically that of its settlement project—on the two-state solution. After exploring the relationship between unilateralism and power, the authors show, inter alia, that in-migration has accounted for about half the settlement growth since the international embrace of the land-for-peace formula in 1991, that the level of in-migration does not fluctuate according to government composition (right or left), and that Israeli-Palestinian negotiations have spurred rather than inhibited settlement expansion. The essay is framed by a contrast with the Palestinian bid for full UN membership, rejected as unilateralism by the Western powers but in fact aimed at undercutting Israeli unilateralism and creating the conditions for meaningful negotiations.


 Liminal Loyalties: Ottomanism and Palestinian Responses to the Turkish War of Independence, 1919–22

Author(s): Awad Halabi

pp. 19-37

Abstract: The imposition of British rule in Palestine following World War I did not immediately supplant one imperial system with another or Ottoman identities with national ones. Examining Palestinian responses to the Turkish war of independence, this article argues that the 1917–22 period should be seen as a “liminal” era suspended between imperial systems. Both Kemalists and Palestinians employed a discourse of loyalty to the Ottoman dynasty, Muslim identity, and resistance to European rule to frame their goals. It was only after the creation of the Turkish Republic and the promulgation of the British Mandate, the author argues, that nationalist identities displaced Ottoman ones for both Turks and Palestinians.


 Compounding Vulnerability: Impacts of Climate Change on Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank

Author(s): Michael Mason; Mark Zeitoun; Ziad Mimi

pp. 38-53

Abstract: Coping with (and adapting to) climatological hazards is commonly understood in intergovernmental and aid agency fora as a purely technical matter. This article examines the UN Development Programme’s stakeholder consultations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip in order to challenge the donor-driven technical-managerial framing of Palestinian climate vulnerability by showing how Israeli occupation practices exacerbate environmental stresses. While emphasizing the importance of social, economic, and political contexts in shaping populations’ responses to climate change in general, the authors demonstrate the multiple ways in which the occupation specifically compounds hazards reveals it as constitutive of Palestinian climate vulnerability.


 The Origins of Hamas: Militant Legacy or Israeli Tool?

Author(s): Jean-Pierre Filiu

pp. 54-70

Abstract: Since its creation in 1987, Hamas has been at the forefront of armed resistance in the occupied Palestinian territories. While the movement itself claims an unbroken militancy in Palestine dating back to 1935, others credit post-1967 maneuvers of Israeli Intelligence for its establishment. This article, in assessing these opposing narratives and offering its own interpretation, delves into the historical foundations of Hamas starting with the establishment in 1946 of the Gaza branch of the Muslim Brotherhood (the mother organization) and ending with its emergence as a distinct entity at the outbreak of the first intifada. Particular emphasis is given to the Brotherhood’s pre-1987 record of militancy in the Strip, and on the complicated and intertwining relationship between the Brotherhood and Fatah.


 Reconceptualizing the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Key Paradigm Shifts

Author(s): Sara Roy

pp. 71-91

Abstract: In the near 20 years since the Oslo peace process began, Palestinians have suffered losses—socially, economically and politically—arguably not seen since 1948. This altered reality has, in recent years, been shaped by critical paradigm shifts in the way the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is understood and addressed. These shifts, particularly with regard to international acceptance of Palestine’s territorial fragmentation, the imperative of ending Israel’s occupation, the de facto annexation of West Bank lands to Israel, and the transformation of Palestinians into a humanitarian issue—have redefined the way the world views the conflict, diminishing the possibility of a political resolution.


 Reflections on a Lifetime of Engagement with Zionism, the Palestine Question, and American Empire: An Interview with Noam Chomsky

Author(s): Mouin Rabbani

pp. 92-120


 Review: Remembering Palestine in 1948: Beyond National Narratives

Author(s): Weldon C. Matthews

pp. 121-122


 Review: Late Ottoman Palestine: The Period of the Young Turk Rule

Author(s): Dana Sajdi

pp. 122-123


 Review: Colonialism and Christianity in Mandate Palestine,

Author(s): Anthony O’Mahony

pp. 123-125


 Review: Palestinian Women: Narrative Histories and Gendered Memories

Author(s): Anaheed Al-Hardan

pp. 125-126


 Review: The Palestinians in Israel: The Conflict Within,; Arab Minority Nationalism in Israel: The Politics of Indigeneity (Routledge Studies on the Arab-Israeli Conflict),

Author(s): Nimer Sultany

pp. 126-130


 Review: Militarism and Israeli Society,

Author(s): Zvi Ben-Dor Benite

pp. 130-131


 Review: Nation and History: Israeli Historiography between Zionism and Post-Zionism; Zionism and the Roads Not Taken: Rawidowicz, Kaplan, Kohn

Author(s): Ephraim Nimni

pp. 131-136


 Arab Views

pp. 137-138


 Selections from the Press

pp. 139-160


 Photos from the Quarter

pp. 161-168


 Update on Conflict and Diplomacy

pp. 169-204


 Settlement Monitor

pp. 205-218


 A1. European Members of UN Security Council, Joint Statement on Jerusalem, New York, 20 December 2011

pp. 219-220


 A2. European Union, Internal Report on “Area C and Palestinian State Building,” Brussels, January 2012 (excerpts)

pp. 220-223


 A3. EU Heads of Mission, Report on East Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 10 February 2012 (excerpts)

pp. 223-232


 B. B’Tselem , “Three Years since Operation Cast Lead: Israeli Military Utterly Failed to Investigate Itself,” Jerusalem, 19 January 2012.

pp. 232-235


 C. Khaled Elgindy, “The Middle East Quartet: A Post-Mortem,” Washington, D.C., February 2012 (excerpts)

pp. 235-240


 Bibliography of Periodical Literature

pp. 241-251



p. 252



pp. 253-284

Cite: Kark & Frantzman, The Negev: Ottoman and British Policy

Kark, Ruth and Seth J. Frantzman. “The Negev: Land, Settlement, the Bedouin and Ottoman and British Policy 1871-1948.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 39.1 (2012): 53-77.





Focusing on the sub-district of Beersheba in British Mandatory Palestine, we examine issues of colonial administration, land use, relations between the government and indigenous nomads and extension of government control over marginal regions. Based on archival primary written sources and maps, we assess British Mandatory policy in the Negev, in the contexts of land ownership, settlement and the Bedouin population. The British Mandatory administration inherited a Southern Palestine Negev region that had been affected by a robust Ottoman policy of increasing administrative intervention, policing, land settlement and overall projection of government power. During 30 years of Mandatory rule, the policy was markedly different. The Beersheba sub-district, which incorporated almost half the area of Mandatory Palestine, was a unique administrative unit, populated almost entirely by nomadic Bedouins. Although the Mandatory authorities foresaw land settlement and sedenterisation as a goal in Palestine, they did not apply their administrative apparatus to fulfill this policy in the Negev, neglecting much of it.

Reviews: Mazza, Jerusalem. From the Ottomans to British

Mazza, Roberto. Jerusalem: From the Ottomans to the British. London and New York: IB Tauris, 2009.


Jerusalem From the Ottomans to the British Cover 


  • Renton, James. “Review.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 73.3 (2010): 538-540.
  • Halabi, Awad. “Review.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 44.2 (2012): 360-362.

Reviews: Campos, Ottoman Brothers

Campos, Michelle U. Ottoman Brothers. Muslims, Christians, and Jews in Early Twentieth-Century Palestine. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011.



cover for Ottoman Brothers





  • Jacobson, Abigail. “Review.” Journal of Levantine Studies 1.2 (2011).
  • Norris, Jacob. “Review.” Historical Journal 55.1 (2012): 277-278.
  • Baer, Marc David. “Review.” American Historical Review 117.1 (2012): 305.
  • Robson, Laura. “Review.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 44.2 (2012): 355-357.

Cite: Ben Ya’akov, North African Jewish Widows in Late-Ottoman Palestine

Ben Ya’akov, Michal. “Space and Place: North African Jewish Widows in Late-Ottoman Palestine.” Hawwa 10:1-2 (2012): 37-58.





During the nineteenth century, the number of Jews in Jerusalem soared, including Jews in the North African Jewish community, which witnessed a significant growth spurt. Within the Jewish community, the number of widows, both young and old, was significant—approximately one-third of all adult Jews. This paper focuses on the spatial organization and residential patterns of Maghrebi Jewish widows and their social significance in nineteenth-century Jerusalem. Although many widows lived with their families, for other widows, without family in the city, living with family was not an option and they lived alone. By sharing rented quarters with other widows, some sought companionship as well as to ease the financial burden; others had to rely on communal support in shelters and endowed rooms. Each of these solutions reflected communal and religious norms regarding women in general, and widows in particular, ranging from marginalization and rejection to sincere concern and action.


Hawwa: Journal of Women of the Middle East and the Islamic World