What explains Sharon’s policy of unilaterally disengaging from settlements he himself promoted and defended as necessary for Israel’s security? His shift in policy can be explained by ideological and personality factors that enabled the change, in combination with more proximate, sufficient causes. Sharon’s weak commitment to any one ideology, his present time orientation, his high risk propensity, and moderate cognitive flexibility enabled his significant policy changes. Sharon’s straddling between Labor and Likud perspectives both acts as a permissive variable for some change, and also as a restraint on more extensive change, such as giving up the entire West Bank and dividing Jerusalem.
1. The Study of Civil—Military Relations in Israel: A New Perspective / Oren Barak and Gabriel Sheffer 2. Military Knowledge and Weak Civilian Control in the Reality of Low Intensity Conflict—The Israeli Case / Kobi Michael 3. Civil Society, the Military, and National Security: The Case of Israel’s Security Zone in South Lebanon / Avraham Sela 4. Intractable Conflict and the Media / Yoram Peri 5. Tensions between Military Service and Jewish Orthodoxy in Israel: Implications Imagined and Real / Stuart A. Cohen 6. From "Obligatory Militarism" to "Contractual Militarism"—Competing Models of Citizenship / Yagil Levy, Edna Lomsky-Feder, and Noa Harel 7. Shadow Lands: The Use of Land Resources for Security Needs in Israel / Amiram Oren 8. "The Battle over Our Homes": Reconstructing/Deconstructing Sovereign Practices around Israel’s Separation Barrier on the West Bank / Yuval Feinstein and Uri Ben-Eliezer 9. The Debate over the Defense Budget in Israel / Zalman F. Shiffer 10. Civilian Control over the Army in Israel and France / Samy Cohen 11. The Making of Israel’s Political—Security Culture / Amir Bar-Or 12. The Discourses of "Psychology" and the "Normalization" of War in Contemporary Israel / Edna Lomsky-Feder and Eyal Ben-Ari 13. Visual Representations of IDF Women Soldiers and "Civil-Militarism" in Israel / Chava Brownfield-Stein 14. Contradictory Representation of the IDF in Cultural Texts of the 1980s / Yuval Benziman 15. Military and Society since 9/11: Retrospect and Prospect / Christopher Dandeker
Keywords: Israel: Politics, Military, Lebanon, Israel: Society, Gender, Israel: Culture, Israel: Economy, West Bank, Partition / Separation, Wall / Separation Barrier, Israel: Religion, Religious-Secular Dividem גבי שפר, אורן ברק
Primakov, Yevgeny. Russia and the Arabs. New York: Basic Books (of the Perseus Books Group), 2009.
Keywords: Russia: Middle East Policy, USSR / Soviet Union, 1967 war, 1973 War, Six Day War, Yom Kippur War, Peace: with Egypt, Lebanon, Israeli-Arab Conflict, Israeli-Palestinian conflict, USA: Middle East Policy, Israel: Nuclear Weapons, Iraq, Iran: Nuclear Weapons, Yasser Arafat, Saddam Hussein
Weinbaum, Batya. "Voices from the Kibbutz: Four Mothers, New Profile, and Women in Black." The European Legacy 15,1 (2010): 55-69.
Abstract: If there is any social organization that has provided a powerful illustration of the permeable boundaries between social politics—defined by Stephen M. Buechler as ‘‘forms of collective action that challenge power relations without an explicit focus on the state’’—and social movements, and the role of collective identity in transforming either, as defined for women by Betty Friedan—it would be the Israeli kibbutz movement. The research presented here on grassroots Israeli women activists, a significant proportion of whom had grown up or had lived in a kibbutz, suggests that the social politics of everyday life on a kibbutz facilitated women’s participation in larger social movements for peace, but also placed constraints on their activism. Many of these women had left or were in the process of leaving the kibbutz between 1989 and 1999, when this research was conducted. Those who had already left, and anchor women who organized urban demonstrations, saw the kibbutz as a conservative anti-woman force. Nonetheless, evidence gathered from qualitative interviewing with them suggests that the kibbutzim supported women who were politically active on national issues. Several women-led social protest movements illustrate how the kibbutz geared its members to think about the interplay of the moral and social orders in the small spaces of everyday life.