New Article: Ariel et al, Ethnic and Racial Employment Discrimination in Low-Wage and High-Wage Markets

Ariel, Barak, Ilanit Tobby-Alimi, Irit Cohen, Mazal Ben-Ezra, Yafa Cohen, and Gabriela Sosinski. “Ethnic and Racial Employment Discrimination in Low-Wage and High-Wage Markets: Randomized Controlled Trials Using Correspondence Tests in Israel.” Law & Ethics of Human Rights 9.1 (2015): 113-39.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/lehr-2015-0003

 

Abstract

A rich body of literature on employment discrimination exists. Theoretically, discriminatory practices are explained by taste-based discrimination, differences in the bargaining ability of applicants or statistical discrimination. Global experimental research tends to show significant anti-minority attitudes in the hiring process, specifically at the entry stage into the engagement cycle – when an application and resume are sent to the prospective employer. These field studies often employ “correspondence tests,” in which identical, fictitious resumes are sent to employers with differences only in the racial, gender, religious or national origin of the applicant (e.g., the name of the applicant). Yet, the literature is lacking in at least three areas: First, evidence from correspondence tests has primarily focused on middle-range wage earners, and little research exists on low-wage or high-wage earner positions. Second, research has looked at employment discrimination that excludes certain groups, but has neglected possible prejudice that “locks” such groups into unqualified or underpaid positions. Finally, there may also be a place-based effect – in which diverse communities are less discriminatory than more homogeneous communities, or vice versa. In this paper, we report on two population-level experiments with seven independent correspondence tests that were conducted in the Israel labor market, both designed to fill these three lags in the literature. We tested the likelihood of (a) Israeli-Arab lawyers versus Jewish lawyers being asked to job interviews at Israel’s largest law firms (n = 178); and (b) Mizrahi Jews versus Ashkenazi Jews being asked to job interviews, in any one of the registered security firms (n = 369). We compared which groups are more likely to be called for interviews and then meta-analyzed the results using standardized differences of means. Our findings suggest significant overall employment discrimination against both Arab-Israelis and Mizrahi Jews, whose applications are overall less likely to be both acknowledged by the prospective employers and asked for interview – despite the applicants having identical qualifications. However, we find that the effect in low-wage jobs is conditional on geographic location, with evidence to suggest that in some regions there is no preference toward either ethnicity. We find no support for a locking effect. We discuss the findings in the broader theoretical context, but suggest that a more granular application of the theory is called for, which takes into account community dynamics and the level of localized ethnic integration.

 

New Book: Hatuka et al, eds. City-Industry (in Hebrew)

חתוקה, טלי, רוני בר, מירב בטט, יואב זילברדיק, כרמל חנני, שלי חפץ, מיכאל יעקובסון והילה לוטן. עיר-תעשייה. תל אביב: רסלינג, 2014.

778

 

URL: http://www.resling.co.il/book.asp?series_id=3&book_id=799

Most of us work somewhere, in a certain place. Our bodies perched above a machine for hours, our organs operate it. Thus, every day, in a repeated routine. But our days are not similar. Professional demands, working hours, employment conditions, the wages of our labor – all these separate us from one another. Our working environments are also different. The landscape of industry is diverse: streets, complexes, campuses, boxes, trains and towers whose design is linked to the production and branding system of the workplace. Landscapes follow the market’s mood, as it decides which factories will close, which will grow and develop, which company will be sold to an international corporate or relocated to a distant district. This is the landscape of production, a temporary landscape that influences and shapes our world.

An examination of the industrial landscape in Israel reveals a complex picture: the manifold industrial zones, sometimes in close proximity to one another, compete with each other with no comprehensive strategy; resources are distributed unjustly, and thus municipalities cannot always benefit from the profits of the industrial zones; construction expansion in open spaces wastes land resources; and mainly, an autonomous conceptualization of the industrial zone, with no spatial, administrative, or operative connection between it and the urban fabric. Nevertheless, even within this complex picture, situated in a context of time and place, one can discern patterns and spatial configurations in the background of the industrial landscape.

City-Industry is the product of the Laboratory for Contemporary Urban Design (LCUD) at Tel Aviv University. It is the second book in a trilogy on urban landscapes in Israel. The first book, Neighborhood-State, sought to investigate the dependent relationships between citizen and state in residential areas. The current volume exposes the overt and hidden relationships between city and industry. It follows the temporality and dynamics of work environments and recognizes them as arenas of precariousness. Within this temporariness, the authors – as planners – seek to raise awareness to relationships between worker and place, between the laborer and his city.

New Article: Abu Asbah et al, Gender Perceptions of Teachers in the Arab Education System in Israel

Abu Asbah, Khaled, Muhammed Abu Nasra and Khawla Abu-Baker. “Gender Perceptions of Male and Female Teachers in the Arab Education System in Israel.” Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies 10.3 (2014): 109-24.

 

URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2979/jmiddeastwomstud.10.3.109

 

Abstract

This study examines gender perceptions and attitudes of Arab male and female teachers in Israel. This quantitative study includes 302 Arab Muslim male and female teachers in the Arab education system. The results show that participants believe that there is no gender equality in Arab society in Israel, a conviction stronger among male teachers. Transition of Arab society from traditional to modern society has not eliminated that particular regime. Improved education of women and their professional promotion have not ensured gender equality. Changes in the status of Arab women and attitudes toward their participation in the labor force are due not to changes in the social structure of Arab society but to economic structural constraints at the national level.

 

New Article: Kemp and Raijman, A Meso-Level Analysis of Labor Trafficking in Israel

Kemp, Adriana and Rebeca Raijman. “Bringing in State Regulations, Private Brokers, and Local Employers: A Meso-Level Analysis of Labor Trafficking in Israel.” International Migration Review (early view).

 

URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/imre.12109/abstract

 

Abstract

This article examines the intersection of state policies, private brokers and local employers that fuels trafficking practices and forced labor of legal labor migrants. Focusing on the Israeli case of labor migration, we offer a meso-level institutional analysis of the modes by which private brokers’s actions combine with state regulations and policies in creating labor trafficking. More specifically, we stress the active role official labor migration schemes play in the growth of a private brokerage sector driven by profit considerations and in the privatization of state capacities regarding migration control and management. Our analysis demonstrates how systemic features – and not necessarily or solely criminal activities – catalyze trafficking practices taking place first and foremost within the realm of legal migration.

ToC: Israel Studies Review 28,2 (2013)

Guest Editors’ Introduction: Rethinking the Family in Israel

pp. vii-xii(6)
Authors: Fogiel-Bijaoui, Sylvie; Rutlinger-Reiner, Reina

Articles: The Transformation of Intimacies

pp. 1-17(17)
Author: Engelberg, Ari

Articles: Families in Transition

pp. 83-101(19)
Author: Rutlinger-Reiner, Reina

Articles: The Boundaries of Family Life

pp. 140-156(17)
Author: Lustenberger, Sibylle

Articles: Legal Discourse, Private Life

pp. 210-227(18)
Author: Fogiel-Bijaoui, Sylvie

Articles: Articles: Legal Discourse, Private Life

pp. 247-263(17)
Author: Mazeh, Yoav

pp. 300-313(14)
Author: Kreiczer-Levy, Shelly

Book Reviews

pp. 314-324(11)

Cite: Ben-Yehoyada, Sardines, skills, and the labor process in Jaffa, 1948–1979

Ben-Yehoyada, Naor. “The Men Who Knew Too Much: Sardines, Skills, and the Labor Process in Jaffa, Israel, 1948–1979.” Focaal 67 (2013): 91-106.

 

URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/berghahn/focaal/2013/00002013/00000067/art00007

 

Abstract

This historical anthropology of the rise and fall of Israel’s post-1948 sardine purse-seining development project shows what happens when marginalized groups, who are initially excluded as “backward” or “primitive”, enter modernization projects that are based on politics of skillfulness and experts’ control over the labor process. By focusing on the role that skills play in the struggle between experts and artisans over the labor process, I show how the dynamics within state-run production apparatuses can make workers and experts face dilemmas about productivity, profit, and effectiveness, leading to such projects’ implosion. This mode of analysis exposes the contradictions within projects of governance as well as in their relational intersection with the people they subjugate and exclude.

Cite: Maron, Articulations of Citizenship under a Neoliberal State: The Israeli Workfare Programme

Maron, Asa. “Conflicting Articulations of Citizenship under a Neoliberal State Project: The Contested Implementation of the Israeli Workfare Programme.” Mediterranean Politics 17.3 (2012): 427-445.

URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/med/2012/00000017/00000003/art00011

Abstract

This paper examines the Israeli workfare programme as a neoliberal state project and its contested implications for Israeli citizenship. Israeli workfare attempted to reconfigure the relations between state, market and beneficiaries of Income Support Allowance by redefining their duties of citizenship as independent, self-sufficient providers. Using private case managers and employment coaches, the state urged them to comply with the imperative of labour market participation as the principal duty of Israeli citizenship. This paper focuses on emerging street-level relations between privatized agents of reform, who enforced the new civic duty, and programme participants, who resisted this new imposed ‘social contract’, and insisted that the state maintain some social responsibility. By analysing these mundane negotiations regarding the duties of citizenship under a neoliberal state project, this paper suggests that entrenched legacies of citizenship may be utilized to resist the compulsion of market citizenship.

Cite: Raijman, Exclusionist Attitudes towards Labour Migrants in Israel

Raijman, Rebeca. “Foreigners and Outsiders: Exclusionist Attitudes towards Labour Migrants in Israel.” International Migration. Early View (first published online: March 15, 2012). Details to follow.

 

URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2435.2011.00719.x/abstract

 

Abstract

This paper examines theoretical propositions regarding the social mechanisms that produce hostility and discriminatory attitudes towards out-group populations. Specifically, we compare the effect of perceptions of socio-economic and national threats, social contact and prejudice on social distance expressed towards labour migrants. To do so, we examine exclusionary views held by majority and minority groups (Jews and Arabs) towards non-Jewish labour migrants in Israel. Data analysis is based on a survey of the adult Israeli population based on a stratified sample of 1,342 respondents, conducted in Israel in 2007. Altogether, our results show that Israelis (both Jews and Arabs) are resistant to accepting and integrating foreigners into Israeli society. Among Jews, this is because the incorporation of non-Jews challenges the definition of Israel as a Jewish state and poses a threat to the homogeneity of the nation. Among Arabs, this is probably due to threat and competition over resources. The meanings of the findings are discussed within the unique ethno-national context of Israeli society and in light of sociological theories on ethnic exclusionism.

Cite: Daoud, Palestinian Working Women in Israel

Suheir Abu Oksa Daoud. “Palestinian Working Women in Israel: National Oppression and Social Restraints.” Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies 8.2 (2012): 78-101.

 

URL: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_middle_east_womens_studies/v008/8.2.daoud.html

 

 

Abstract

The paid labor force participation of women in Arab states has always been among the lowest in the world. The same is true for Palestinian Arab women who are citizens of Israel. In sharp contrast, the paid labor participation of Jewish women in Israel is among the highest globally. This paper looks at the consequences of Israeli policy and changing social norms on the Palestinian minority in Israel through the prism of female Palestinian activism in Israel’s economy. In particular, it examines the causes, consequences, and changes in the labor force participation of Palestinian women citizens in Israel. Drawing on fieldwork and interviews with some of these women, this paper also examines the impact of their newfound earning power on social attitudes and the division of labor in their homes.

Cite: Sharabi, Meaning of Work: Jews and Muslims

 

 

Sharabi, Moshe. “Culture, Religion, Ethnicity and the Meaning of
Work: Jews and Muslims in the Israeli Context.” Culture and Religion 12.3 (2011): 219-235.

 

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14755610.2011.605157

Abstract

The work values of Arabs in general, and of Muslims in particular, have not yet been studied in Israel. This study examines the meaning of work (MOW) of 1201 Jews and 219 Muslims, who work in the Israeli labour market. The findings reveal significant differences in the MOW dimensions and demonstrate different perceptions and internalisation of work values between the two ethno-religious groups. While the Jews have a higher economic and intrinsic orientation and a higher need for interpersonal relations than the Muslims, the Muslims have higher work centrality. The findings attributed to cultural differences, ethnic conflict, occupational discrimination and high degree of segregation.