New Article: Tiargan-Orr & Eran-Jona, Israeli Public’s Perception of the IDF Stability and Change

Tiargan-Orr, Roni, and Meytal Eran-Jona. “The Israeli Public’s Perception of the IDF Stability and Change.” Armed Forces & Society (early view; online first)

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0095327X15592214

 

Abstract
This article attempts to shed light on Israel’s civil–military relations by employing the public’s trust in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) as a key parameter. The study is based on a series of public opinion polls conducted between 2001 and 2010, during periods of military confrontation as well as periods of relative quiet. The findings show that despite increased criticism toward the IDF and claims by researchers, the Jewish-Israeli public’s trust in the IDF generally remains very high and stable and strengthens significantly when the cannons start to roar. We also found a fixed pattern of change in public opinion during low-intensity conflicts. In a comparative perspective, the findings suggest that the “rally ’round the flag” effect is relevant in the Israeli case both in conventional war and in limited conflicts. Moreover, the findings indicate that the public’s trust in the army is not a uniform perception but a complex one that may have different and sometimes conflicting facets.

 

Reviews: Helman, Becoming Israeli

Helman, Anat. Becoming Israeli. National Ideals and Everyday Life in the 1950s, Schusterman Series in Israel Studies. Waltham, Mass.: Brandeis University Press, 2014.

9781611685572
Reviews

    • Burghardt, Linda F.”Review.” Jewish Book Council, n.d.
    • Bernstein, Deborah. “Review.” Journal of Israeli History (early view; online first).
    • Hirsch, Dafna. “Review.” Israel Studies Review 30.2 (2015).

 

 

Reviews: Ben-Porat, Between State and Synagogue

Ben-Porat, Guy. Between State and Synagogue: The Secularization of Contemporary Israel. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

 

BenPoratSecularization

Reviews

    • Lassen, Amos. “The Times They Are A-Changing.” Reviews by Amos Lassen, April 7, 2013.
    • Tabory, Ephraim. “Review.” Middle East Journal 67.4 (2013): 646-7.
    • Omer, Atalia. “Review.” American Journal of Sociology 119.5 (2014): 1518-1520.
    • Sorek, Tamir. “Review.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 46.2 (2015): 421-2.
    • Weiss, Shayna. “Review.” Journal of Church and State 57.3 (2015): 565-7.
    • Hollander, Philip. “Judaism in Israel.” VCU Menorah Review 82 (Winter/Spring 2015).

 

 

 

New Article: Bagno-Moldavski, The Effect of Religiosity on Political Attitudes in Israel

Bagno-Moldavski, Olena. “The Effect of Religiosity on Political Attitudes in Israel.” Politics and Religion 8.3 (2015): 514-43.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1755048315000516

 

Abstract

This article studies the influence of religion on political attitudes in Israel by testing two propositions: “religion-friendly” democratization and “greedy” socialization. The former implies that accommodation of religious demands stimulates democratization, the latter argues that domineering religious socialization does not motivate democratic attitudes. Analysis of data from representative surveys conducted in 2006–2013, supports “greedy” socialization over the “religion friendly” hypothesis. I show that in most instances, socialization in religion-friendly environments does not moderate the political attitudes of religiously conservative groups. The results suggest that unbounded accommodation of religious needs in non-religious institutions may strengthen undemocratic political attitudes.

 

 

New Article: Shalev et al, Mate Selection Patterns in Modern Orthodox Society

Shalev, Ofra, Nehami Baum, and Haya Itzhaky. “‘Whose Marriage is this?’ – Mate Selection Patterns in Modern Orthodox Society in Israel: A Dialogue between Two Cultural Systems.” Journal of Psychology and Psychotherapy 5.3 (2015).

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2161-0487.1000181

 

Abstract

In modern societies, mate selection process has received extensive attention in the theoretical and research literature. Researchers were primarily concentrated in identifying the parameters that motivate and influence the choice of partner, as similarity, mutual benefits, and emotional aspects. Little attention, however, was given to the social and cultural context under which the selection process takes place. The present study attempted to explore this process among Modern Orthodox couples in Israel, as they combine two simultaneous cultural systems; modern and traditional. 36 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with couples during their first year of marriage. The analysis revealed several mate selection styles, which were classified into two main groups: the “cognitive selectors” and the “emotional selectors”. Both groups relate to their social context as a main factor in their selection process and outcome. The study findings throw light on the cultural complexity and duality of parallel value systems.

 

 

New Article: Moore, Israeli Women—Changes and Their Consequences

Moore, Dahlia. “Israeli Women—Changes and Their Consequences.” In Psychology of Gender Through the Lens of Culture. Theories and Applications (ed. Saba Safdar, Natasza Kosakowska-Berezecka; New York: Springer, 2015), 113-46.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-14005-6_7

 

Abstract
Structural, macrolevel factors (e.g., education level, the degree of sex-segregation in the labor market, availability of child-care facilities, tax exemptions for working mothers or dual-worker families, and other measures of industrialization) should be included in the analysis of changes in the lives of women as they contribute to our understanding of differences among societies. The impact of these macrolevel changes is not uniform across all groups and categories within societies. In order for these changes to be effective and change society, a supportive—humanistic and/or egalitarian—ideology is necessary. However, egalitarian and equal-worth ideals are not spread evenly. In Israel, as in all western societies, some segments maintain more traditional beliefs concerning the social roles of men and women and the division of labor between them, while others are more egalitarian. The main cultural areas in which changes may have occurred and are examined in this chapter include self-attribution of traits and locus of control, gender identities, the gendered division of labor, perceptions of family and work roles, and stereotypes against women. This chapter examines these issues in the diverse Israeli society.

 

New Article: Buchbinder & Karayanni, Arab Battered Women Coping with Stigmatization

Buchbinder, Eli, and Nisreen George Karayanni. “Rejection and Choice: Arab Battered Women Coping with Stigmatization After Leaving Battered Women’s Shelters in Israel.” Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work 24.3 (2015): 235-50.

 

URL: https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15313204.2014.991981

 

Abstract
In the collectivist Arab society, intimate partner violence (IPV) is considered to be a personal and a family problem. Arab women who seek refuge in shelters for battered women are perceived as violating a cultural norm. This study focused on how Arab women cope with living independently in the community after spending time in a shelter. In this qualitative study, 12 women between the ages of 25 and 42 were interviewed, after having spent six to 30 months in the shelter. Since then, they had been living in the community. Analysis of the interviews revealed that the women described their independent lives as positioned between two poles: On one pole, they experienced stress and rejection from the family and society, which caused them pain, anger, and loneliness. On the other pole, the women experienced strength that enabled them to find meaning in their right to choose. The discussion of the study findings focuses on the dialectical relationships between the social stigma of rejection and the women’s self-transformation toward an empowered identity in the context of a collectivist-patriarchal community.

 

 

New Article: Kaplan & Werczberger, Jewish New Age and the Middle Class

Kaplan, Dana, and Rachel Werczberger. “Jewish New Age and the Middle Class: Jewish Identity Politics in Israel under Neoliberalism.” Sociology (early view; online first).

 

URL: https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038515595953

 

Abstract
This article asks why middle-class Israeli seculars have recently begun to engage with Jewish religiosity. We use the case of the Jewish New Age (JNA) as an example of the middle class’s turn from a nationalised to a spiritualised version of Judaism. We show, by bringing together the sociology of religion’s interest in emerging spiritualities and cultural sociology’s interest in social class, how after Judaism was deemed socially significant in identity-based struggles for recognition, Israeli New Agers started culturalising and individualising Jewish religiosity by constructing it in a spiritual, eclectic, emotional and experiential manner. We thus propose that what may be seen as cultural and religious pluralism is, in fact, part of a broader system of class reproduction.

 

 

New Article: Sharkia et al, Changes in Marriage Patterns among the Arab Community in Israel over a 60-Year Period

Sharkia, Rajech, Muhammad Mahajnah, Esmael Athamny, Mohammad Khatib, Ahmad Sheikh-Muhammad, and Abdelnaser Zalan. “Changes in Marriage Patterns among the Arab Community in Israel over a 60-Year Period.” Journal of Biosocial Science (early view; online first).

 
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021932015000103

 
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and trends of various types of consanguineous marriage among the Arab community in Israel over a long time period (1948–2007) by religion and educational level. Data were collected by face-to-face interview of 3173 Arab couples living in Israel in 2007 and 2008. The trend in consanguineous marriages was found to decrease significantly over successive time periods, from 42.5% to 30.9% (p=0.001), and the prevalence of first-cousin and closer marriages decreased, from 23% to 12.7%. Consanguinity was found to be significantly related to religion (p=0.001) and wife’s level of education (p=0.028).

 
 
 
 

New Article: Finzi-Dottan & Cohen, Predictors of Involvement and Warmth of Custodial Fathers in Israel

Finzi-Dottan, Ricky, and Orna Cohen. “Predictors of Involvement and Warmth of Custodial Fathers in Israel: Comparison with Married and Noncustodial Divorced Fathers.” Family Process (early view; online first).

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/famp.12124

 

Abstract

This study compared the levels and predictors of paternal warmth and involvement of 218 custodial fathers to 222 married fathers and 105 noncustodial (NC) divorced fathers in Israel. The examined predictors were fathers’ perceptions of their own fathers; their own caregiving behaviors and parental self-efficacy; and child characteristics and coparental coordination. Results indicated that being a custodial father was associated with more involvement than being a married or NC divorced father. Regression analyses revealed that experience of care with own father predicted fathers’ involvement, whereas own father control was related to lower paternal warmth. Lower avoidant caregiving and high paternal self-efficacy predicted both paternal involvement and warmth, whereas perceiving the child as more difficult predicted lower paternal warmth. Higher levels of coparental coordination were associated with more paternal involvement, whereas low coparental coordination was associated with less involvement, primarily among NC divorced fathers. These interactions highlight the distinct paternal behavior of custodial fathers. Unlike married and NC divorced fathers, they showed more warmth, regardless of their avoidant caregiving. Results are discussed in light of the different roles played by fathers in the three groups.

New Article: Guggenheim & Taubman–Ben-Ari, Women as Key to Enhancing Road Safety in Ultraorthodox Communities

Guggenheim, Noga and Orit Taubman – Ben-Ari. “Women as a Key to Enhancing Road Safety in Ultraorthodox Communities in Israel.” Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 30 (2015): 22-29.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2015.02.004

 

Abstract

The ultraorthodox sector in Israel, while an integral part of society, has unique cultural characteristics along with limited media exposure. Both these features impact the perceptions of driving and road safety, as well as the ability to influence them. In view of the scarcity of research literature on these issues, the present study sought to gain further insight into the community in an attempt to find a creative way to leverage road safety among ultraorthodox road users in Israel.

Using the phenomenological qualitative method, 60 face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with women and men of different ages and backgrounds from the major ultraorthodox communities. Findings reveal that for the ultraorthodox, driving is a controversial subject that represents much more than its normative practical function in modern Western societies. It is subject to sociocultural restrictions that are reflected, inter alia, in limited public discourse on road safety. Moreover, the findings highlight the prominent educational role of women in this sector: they are exclusively responsible for raising young children, and are the sole educators of girls of all ages. In addition, as people tend to marry young, and men do not generally drive before marriage, women can influence the safety habits of their spouse as well as their children. The authors suggest building on this potential to increase awareness of road safety by empowering ultraorthodox women to serve as agents of social change in their family and community.

New Article: Sharabi, Social Changes and Their Impact on Work Outcomes

Sharabi, Moshe. “Social Changes in Israeli Society and Their Impact on the Importance of Work Outcomes.” Social Change 45.1 (2015): 81-94.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0049085714561842

 

Abstract

Over the last 30 years, Israeli society has undergone dramatic social, political and economic changes, and this study examines changes in the importance of the valued work outcomes between 1981 and 2006. Results are reported for cross-sectional studies conducted in 1981 (n = 973) and 2006 (n = 909), which were drawn from representative samples of the Israeli workforce. The samples allow us to examine the cohort effect/generational differences and the ageing effect. The findings reveal substantial differences in work outcome importance over the course of time. Between 1981 and 2006, there was a decrease in the importance of the intrinsic outcome of interest and the social outcome of serving society while the importance of the extrinsic outcomes of income, status and prestige increased. This trend reflects the transformation from a collectivist and altruistic society to an individualist and materialistic society, and can be explained by the generational/cohort effect and ageing effect. The changes in work outcomes over the course of time are explained by political, social and economic factors.

New Article: Shilo et al, Individual and Community Resilience Factors Among LGBQ in Israel

Shilo, Guy, Nadav Antebi, and Zohar Mor. “Individual and Community Resilience Factors Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Queer and Questioning Youth and Adults in Israel.” American Journal of Community Psychology 55.1-2 (2015): 215-27.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10464-014-9693-8

 

Abstract

Drawing on resilience theories, this study examined the individual and community factors of Israeli lesbians, gays, bisexuals, queers, and questioning (LGBQs) that contribute to positive mental health and the degree to which individual and community protective factors mitigate the adverse effect of risk factors for poor mental health. Differences in resilience factors between LGBQ youth and adults were explored. Data were collected on 890 LGBQ youth and adults. Findings emphasize the role of community-level resilience factors in the lives of LGBQs, and that these support systems differ slightly between the two age groups. Among youth, family support was both a strong predictor for well-being and a protective factor for mental distress. Although family support was found as a resilience factor among adults as well, other community-level factors (friends’ support, LGBT connectedness and having steady partner) were found as protective factors for poorer mental health. These findings suggest for efforts on fostering familial support for LGBQ youth and a multi-level system that offers support at the familial, peer, relationship and community levels for both LGBQ youth and adults.

New Article: Gavriel-Fried, Attitudes of Jewish Israeli Adults towards Gambling

Gavriel-Fried, Belle. “Attitudes of Jewish Israeli Adults towards Gambling.” International Gambling Studies (early view; online first).

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14459795.2015.1012178

 

Abstract

This study examines the Jewish Israeli public’s attitudes towards gambling, how they vary between various socio-demographic subgroups, and the association between gambling attitudes and gambling behaviour. In April 2014, 1000 Jewish Israeli adults (49.6% of them women) aged 18–67 (M = 40.28, SD = 14.07), responded to an online questionnaire that included the ATGS-8 (Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale), PGSI (Problem Gambling Severity Index) and gambling behaviour scales. The findings suggest that the Jewish Israeli public tends to have a negative attitude towards gambling – albeit less so among men and the secular population than among women and observant (Traditional, Religious or Orthodox) individuals, respectively. No significant differences were found between respondents with respect to age or levels of education. A positive association was found between attitudes and gambling behaviour, and differences were found between gambling severity categories, with low-risk gamblers exhibiting a more positive attitude towards gambling than non-problem gamblers. The findings of this study provide a snapshot of the attitudes of the Jewish Israeli public towards gambling, and may potentially provide a benchmark for further studies in Israel and elsewhere.

New Article: Mahajnah, The Clinical Profile of ADHD in Israel

Mahajnah, M., R. Sharkia, N. Shorbaji, R. Terkel-Dawer, and N. Zelnik. “P173 – 2561: The Clinical Profile of ADHD in Israel – Impact of Ethnic and Social Diversities.” European Journal of Paediatric Neurology 19, sup. 1 (2015): S142 ff.

 
 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1090-3798(15)30486-4

 

Abstract

Objective

The diagnosis of ADHD relies mostly on clinical observation and employment of standard questionnaires and checklist batteries which are highly susceptible to human factors. In this study we searched for differences in the clinical profile of children with ADHD in both the Arab and Jewish sectors in Israel which might be influenced by cultural and social background.

Methods

Data of children aged 7–17 years diagnosed with ADHD between 2010 and 2013 in two ADHD clinics in northern Israel was analyzed. The diagnosis of ADHD was based on clinical evaluation and fulfillment of the DSM IV criteria and aided by both the Teacher and Parent Conners Rating Scales. Children with autism and intellectual disabilities were excluded.

Results

Out of 823 patients – 516 (62.7%) were Jewish and 307 (37.3%) were Arabs. The distributions of the ADHD subtypes were similar in both populations. Learning disabilities (LD) and psychiatric comorbidities (behavioral difficulties and anxiety) were reported more frequently in the Jewish population (49% vs. 41% for LD, 15.7% vs. 12.8% for behavioral difficulties and 27.0% vs. 1.0% for anxiety p<0.05). Patients from the Jewish sector were primarily treated with long-acting methylphenidate formulations while patients from the Arab sector were treated primarily with short acting methylphenidate (p<0.05). The most commonly reported adverse effects were anorexia, headache, insomnia and rebound effect and were more frequently reported in the Jewish population (42.0% vs. 18.0% P<0.05).

Conclusion

This study demonstrates that while the biological nature of ADHD and its subtypes are similar in these two populations, learning disabilities, psychiatric co morbidities, employment of long-acting MPH formulations and complaints of side-effects were more prevalent in patients from the Jewish sectors. We presume that these differences are related to cultural and socioeconomic factors and the physician should take them into consideration when treating patients with ADHD.

Report: A Picture of the Nation, 2015; Taub Center for Social Policy

The Taub Center for Social Policy Studies in Israel Presents:

A Picture of the Nation: Israel’s Society and Economy in Figures, one of the Center’s most popular publications, provides concise and thought-provoking information on Israel’s long-run economic and social trajectories.  Each page of this booklet contains a single graph and short, accompanying text that, when combined, provide the reader with a broad and comprehensive understanding of key socioeconomic issues in Israel today.  Policy makers, the media, the general public, and the global Jewish community look to the Picture of the Nation as an invaluable and highly accessible resource on topics ranging from the labor market to education, poverty and much more.

For the English page, including PDF and PPT versions of the report, as well as previous reports (2002-2014), click here.

For the Hebrew page, click here.

PDF version in English: Picture of the Nation, 2015.

PDF version in Hebrew: תמונת מצב המדינה, 2015.

New Article: Howson, Lessons from Shas about Israel

Howson, Luke. “Lessons from Shas about Israel.” Middle East Journal 69.3 (2015): 397-412.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3751/69.3.14
https://muse.jhu.edu/journals/the_middle_east_journal/v069/69.3.howson.html

 

Abstract

This article focuses on the Israeli ethno-religious party Shas and its role in the Israeli social and political structure. It is argued that while Shas functions successfully in Israel’s Western-style political system, it does so as a more typical “Middle Eastern” party. Thus understanding the context within which Shas operates and its relation to political and societal divisions offers an insight into Israeli society and its political system.

New Article: Kulik, Employment Hardiness among Women in Israel’s Ultraorthodox Community

Kulik, Liat. “Explaining Employment Hardiness Among Women in Israel’s Ultraorthodox Community. Facilitators and Inhibitors.” Journal of Career Assessment (early view; online first).

 
 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1069072714565104

 

Abstract

Based on a sample of 319 Israeli women belonging to the ultraorthodox Jewish community, this study examined factors that facilitate and inhibit the development of employment hardiness. The term employment hardiness refers to one aspect of me as a worker and reflects a self-perception characterized by three distinguishing components, that is, openness to change at work, employment self-efficacy, and work commitment. Facilitators of employment hardiness were manifested in the women’s personal and environmental resources as well as in their work-promoting attitudes (egalitarian gender-role ideology and work centrality). Conversely, the inhibitors were manifested in the participants’ experience of daily stress. Openness to change at work and employment self-efficacy were explained primarily by workplace support and by personal resources as reflected in psychological and community empowerment, whereas work commitment was explained primarily by work-promoting attitudes as well as by the experience of daily stress. Practical recommendations are presented for organizations employing ultraorthodox women as well as for employment counselors, which aim to enhance employment hardiness among traditional women in communities undergoing modernization.

 
 
 

Conference Paper: Berkovitch & Manor, Grandparents Care Work in a Neo Liberal Era

Berkovitch, Nitza, and Shlomit Manor. “‘We Must Help Them As Much As We Can’: Grandparents Care Work in a Neo Liberal Era.” Inequality in the 21st Century, LSE, London, July 4, 2015, 8:30am.

 

URL: https://sase.confex.com/sase/2015am/webprogram/Paper2416.html

 

Abstract

Similar to many other countries, the Israeli family has undergone major changes in the last few decades, chief among these are processes of individualization and the emergence of “new forms of families” or postmodern families. However, the Israeli family—traditional or new—still plays a central role in public life and in the lives of individuals from all social groups. In this paper we focus on grandparents and grandparental child care within these changing configurations of the family.

In addition to cultural factors, the care provided by grandparents, is also influenced by the “new economy”. In the wake of globalization and neo liberalization, we have witnessed increasing demands on professionals – both in term of their hours and availability. There has also been a rise in the number of workers in hourly-waged “precarious” or “bad jobs” with little to no flexibility. These trends coupled with the growing numbers of working mothers with young children have resulted in a “care deficit” and a growing demand for child care.  In a familist society, such as Israel, this is translated into the young parents’ expectations that their parents, the grandparents, will help shoulder the care work.

Based on in-depth interviews of 32 Jewish retirees, men and women with heterogeneous class backgrounds, we examine how economic forces and cultural factors have shape gendered grandparents’ care practices and meanings. Though both men and women feel that grandparenthood is an important and central aspect in their lives, they still grandparent differently. Whereas women tend to perceive taking care of their grandchildren as a continuation of their role as mothers, helping adult children juggle between work and family, for men fatherhood continues by carrying on their “provider” role and assisting their children financially. These men “slide” easily into the grandfather role without much internal deliberation, whereas women are much more likely to debate among themselves about what constitutes “a good grandmother” and what kind of grandmother they are or would like to be. They oscillate between the individualistic cultural imperative of “it’s me time” and the motherly imperative that, in the Israeli context, never ends.

This gendered perception of grandparenting has two interrelated implications. One, it tends to reproduce the gendered division of care work both among the grandparents and the young couples. It is most often the grandmother who takes responsibility, though the grandfather might tag along. Moreover, the care grandparents provide is usually understood in terms of helping the young mother (daughter or daughter-in-law) more than the father. Two, this emerging Israeli version of “two- person career” (Papanek 1973) family where the (house)wife, who now works full- time, is replaced by care-on-demand grandmothers enables employers to place increasing demands on workers’ time and commitments, assuming that every worker (with family responsibilities) has someone at home to help with domestic care work. Thus, neoliberal labor market practices appear to be operating in tandem with and are maintained by gendered moral rationalities, which are based on love, commitment and an ideology of the “good mother”.