German-speaking Jews arrived in Palestine in vast numbers from 1933 onwards. They are not Olim (ascenders, Jewish immigrants to Palestine/Israel) in the classical, Zionistic sense but emigrated out of necessity from Europe. Their history in Europe, and their arrival in Palestine reflect a particular integration into the nascent Jewish society, and resulted in a pronounced particularism that was transmitted across generations. To understand the interdependence of self-definition and superimposed ascription within a society that aims at absorbing immigrants, this paper chronicles the different definitions of Germanness amongst three generations of Yekkes (German-speaking Jews) in Palestine, later Israel, by focusing on community building, familial tradition, and everyday praxes of expressing Germanness.
Shechory-Bitton, Mally, Sarah Ben David and Eliane Sommerfeld. “Effect of Ethnicity on Parenting Styles and Attitudes Toward Violence Among Jewish and Arab Muslim Israeli Mothers. An Intergenerational Approach.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 46.4 (2015): 508-24.
The cultural heterogeneity of Israeli society creates a unique opportunity to study the effects of ethnicity and intergenerational differences on parenting styles, attitudes, and practices. Three groups of mother–daughter dyads took part in the study: Native-born Jewish (NBJ) Israelis (155 dyads), Jewish Mizrahi (JM) immigrants (immigrants from Muslim countries (133 dyads), and native-born Arab Muslim (NBA) Israelis (86 dyads). Participants were located through a “snowball” process in which participants referred their friends to the researchers or gave the researchers names of potential participants. Interethnic differences were found in the mothers’ generation, with JM mothers falling in between NBJ and NBA mothers. This trend changed when we examined differences between the daughters. Although intergenerational differences were found in all groups, the differences were more prominent among Jewish mother–daughter dyads than among mother–daughter dyads in the Muslim population. Contrary to the research hypothesis, the parenting style of JM women was closer to that of NBJ mothers than to NBA mothers. The findings are discussed with reference to the complexity of Israeli society and to the encounter between the culture of the immigrant women who came from Muslim countries and the Western culture of the host society.
Weinstock, Michael, Maysam Ganayiem, Rana Igbaryia, Adriana M. Manago, Patricia M. Greenfield. “Societal Change and Values in Arab Communities in Israel. Intergenerational and Rural–Urban Comparisons.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 46.1 (2015): 19-38.
This study tested and extended Greenfield’s theory of social change and human development to adolescent development in Arab communities in Israel undergoing rapid social change. The theory views sociodemographic changes—such as contact with an ethnically diverse urban setting and spread of technology—as driving changes in cultural values. In one research design, we compared three generations, high school girls, their mothers, and their grandmothers, in their responses to value-assessment scenarios. In a second research design, we compared girls going to high school in an ethnically diverse city with girls going to school in a village. As predicted by the theory, a t test and ANOVA revealed that both urban life and membership in the youngest generation were significantly related to more individualistic and gender-egalitarian values. Regression analysis and a bootstrapping mediation analysis showed that the mechanism of change in both cases was possession of mobile technologies.