The ordinance granting Tel Aviv the status of local council was given in 1921. Immediately thereafter, the municipal council acted to amend the terms of the ordinance so as to free Tel Aviv entirely from the supervision of Jaffa municipality. Tel Aviv aimed for the status of an independent municipality, but still wished to safeguard its interests in Jaffa. Detachment from Jaffa was for long a central issue for Tel Aviv municipality. The article analyses the Jewish side’s stance on Jaffa from 1921 until the outbreak of the disturbances in 1936, when Tel Aviv detached itself almost entirely from Jaffa. In the 1920s, the importance of Jaffa for the Jews was mainly economic, but in the 1930s, the addition of the demographic dimension reflected the growing status of the Jaffa Jewish community and was decisive in increasing the Jewish influence in Jaffa.
Waisman, Orit Sônia. Body, Language and Meaning in Conflict Situations. A Semiotic Analysis of Gesture-Word Mismatches in Israeli-Jewish and Arab Discourse. Studies in Functional and Structural Linguistics,62. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2010.
This article examines Albert Einstein’s reaction to the violent clashes between Jews and Arabs in Palestine in 1929. During the 1920s, Einstein had become a prominent advocate of two seemingly incompatible causes, pacifism and Zionism. A close reading of his writings following the 1929 riots shows that he perceived both Zionism and pacifism as practical methods to counter the lure of modern nationalism and the political structure it entails, the unlimited sovereignty of the state. What he perceived as a nationalist turn within the Zionist camp prompted him to contemplate alternative strategies for the restriction of state power. In this respect, the formation of a peaceful Arab-Jewish symbiosis was a test case for his views. The bilateral rejection of his solution for the conflict was the first in a series of developments that caused him to shift his support from abolishment to regulation of violence.
Amiran, Revital. “The Cultural Nationalism and the Formulation of the Political: Reflections on the Jewish National Movement in the Works of D. Frishman and M. J. Berdichevski.” Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 18.2 (2012): 193-215.
Regarding culture as the very basis of the concept of a nation, this article reflects on cultural nationalism’s attitude towards the idea of a nation-state and national-political life. I will suggest that cultural nationalism is a concept that inevitably invokes the aspiration that art will overcome political life, undermining its role to provide the soon-to-be citizens with an adequate arena on which to contest their ethics. Thus, cultural nationalism might prevent politics from being involved in questions of identity and may imply some questionable consequences regarding democratic values such as individual autonomy. Hence, cultural nationalism keeps open the option to contradict its own intrinsic postulation that aims for self-sovereignty. This claim will be demonstrated with the case study of the Jewish national movement and more specifically through the examination of the writings of two important literary personae within it: David Frishman and Micha Joseph Berdichevski.