New (in paperback): Ferris, Nasser’s Gamble

Ferris, Jesse. Nasser’s Gamble. How Intervention in Yemen Caused the Six-Day War and the Decline of Egyptian Power. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012.

NassersGamble

Nasser’s Gamble draws on declassified documents from six countries and original material in Arabic, German, Hebrew, and Russian to present a new understanding of Egypt’s disastrous five-year intervention in Yemen, which Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser later referred to as “my Vietnam.” Jesse Ferris argues that Nasser’s attempt to export the Egyptian revolution to Yemen played a decisive role in destabilizing Egypt’s relations with the Cold War powers, tarnishing its image in the Arab world, ruining its economy, and driving its rulers to instigate the fatal series of missteps that led to war with Israel in 1967.

Viewing the Six Day War as an unintended consequence of the Saudi-Egyptian struggle over Yemen, Ferris demonstrates that the most important Cold War conflict in the Middle East was not the clash between Israel and its neighbors. It was the inter-Arab struggle between monarchies and republics over power and legitimacy. Egypt’s defeat in the “Arab Cold War” set the stage for the rise of Saudi Arabia and political Islam.

Bold and provocative, Nasser’s Gamble brings to life a critical phase in the modern history of the Middle East. Its compelling analysis of Egypt’s fall from power in the 1960s offers new insights into the decline of Arab nationalism, exposing the deep historical roots of the Arab Spring of 2011.

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Acknowledgments ix

INTRODUCTION – 1
The Golden Age of Nasserism 3
Idealism and Pragmatism in Nasser’s Foreign Policy 11
The Nature of Middle Eastern Politics 14
The Place of the Intervention in Egyptian Memory 16
Structure of the Book 21

CHAPTER ONE – The Road to War 24
The Coup in Yemen 29
The Struggle for Power in Egypt 37
The Accidental Intervention? 49
The Denouement of the Crisis in Cairo 61

Chapter TWO – The Soviet-Egyptian Intervention in Yemen 70
The Nature of Soviet Relations with Egypt and Yemen 71
The Egyptian Appeal and the Soviet Response 75
Explaining Soviet Behavior 88
Forms of Early Soviet Involvement 94

Chapter THREE – Food for “Peace”: The Breakdown of US-Egyptian Relations, 1962-65 102
Recognition 106
Disengagement 113
The Suspension of US Aid 127
The Balance of Payments Crisis 139

Chapter FOUR – Guns for Cotton: The Unraveling of Soviet-Egyptian Relations, 1964-66 142
Guns for Cotton 144
The Soviet Quest for Base Rights in Egypt 146
From Jiddah to Moscow 151
In the Cracks of Cold War Geology 159
The Final Unraveling 162

Chapter FIVE – On the Battlefield in Yemen–and in Egypt 174
Counterinsurgency 176
Casualties 190
Cost 195
Corruption 199
The Spread of Popular Discontent 206

Chapter SIX – The Fruitless Quest for Peace: Saudi-Egyptian Negotiations, 1964-66 215
The First Arab Summit 217
The Second Arab Summit 222
The Jiddah Agreement 232
From the Islamic Pact to the Long Breath Strategy 249
The Kuwaiti Mediation and the Return of Sallal 258

Chapter SEVEN – The Six-Day War and the End of the Intervention in Yemen 262
The Sinai Option 266
The Syrian Connection 272
The Soviet Spark 275
The Egyptian Initiative 284
The Impact of the Yemen War on Egyptian Military Performance in the Six-Day War 289
The Khartoum Conference and the Withdrawal of the Egyptians from Yemen 290

AFTERWORD – The Twilight of Egyptian Power 295

Bibliographical Note 313
Bibliography 319
Index 335

 

 

Jesse Ferris is vice president for strategy at the Israel Democracy Institute and a historian of the modern Middle East.

New Article: Steinberg and Zamir, Evaluation of a Joint Israeli–Palestinian Project

Steinberg, Shoshana and Judith Zamir. “Evaluation of a Joint Israeli–Palestinian Project.” New Directions for Evaluation 146 (2015): 119-27.

 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ev.20125

 

Abstract

This article presents three examples of evaluation intervention demonstrating the ongoing significance of a politically responsive approach. The article’s main goal is to shed light on the evaluator’s role, through the work of a mixed team of Israeli and Palestinian teachers, within a conflict, in an uncomfortable zone context. Israeli and Palestinian teachers participated in a project aimed at producing a history textbook including the narratives of each group, each of whom had its own legitimate objectives. This article intends to highlight the significant contribution of the evaluator to the entire process through the use of three different evaluation tools.

New Article: Wheatley, Arab and Jewish Petitions to the League of Nations

Wheatley, Natasha. “Mandatory Interpretation: Legal Hermeneutics and the New International Order in Arab and Jewish Petitions to the League of Nations.” Past and Present 227 (2015): 205-48.

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pastj/gtv020

 

Extract

Where did the edifices of Paris, 1919, crumble? Scholars of the topic have traditionally based their histories on high diplomacy, hanging narratives around the Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1935 or the Munich crisis of 1938. Yet the creeping lapse of the League’s laws and treaties played out in other forums and registers as well.

Approaching the League’s order from below, it is clear first that the ‘new world order’ of 1919 spawned new reading publics for international law and a new culture of international hermeneutic activism. The League’s legal articulation of legitimate colonial rule and theoretical dilution of sovereignty turned the text of the Mandate for Palestine itself into the terrain of politics. Petitioners’ probing exploration of this terrain broadened the cast of characters invested in questions of international order. Secondly, shifting strategies of appeal reflected altered understandings of the nature and authority of the text and its keeper, the League. If a positivist style of claim-making dominated the mid 1920s, with petitioners looking to leverage the projected power of the mandate text, then the crisis that began in the late 1920s engendered a change in that style, as petitioners communicated scepticism about the text, and the League’s policing of it, in their interpretative constructions. The fragility and precariousness ascribed to the law indicated the fraught nature of its operation on the ground. While the text became less plausible as law to the disfranchised Palestinian Arabs, devoid of the characteristics that make law useful, Zionist petitioners clung insistently and creatively to this increasingly brittle enunciation of their national rights, even as they, too, hedged their bets in the invocation of alternative sources of right.

To be sure, petitioning reflected rather than caused that decline in the League’s legal usefulness: the ignoble fate of the Mandate for Palestine was driven by the dialectic of discriminatory policy and violence, and to some extent by the PMC’s handling of the case, just as the broader story of the League’s enfeeblement was shaped by forces beyond the mandate system. But if petitioners shaped the development of the PMC’s jurisdiction, they were also progenitors of a style of international legal politics that would only grow in importance as the twentieth century progressed.

This style juxtaposed the pieties of international law with the denial of rights that characterized European colonialism. With the subsequent 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, this mode of politics expanded into a global debate about the application of such rights in Europe’s colonies. In the case at hand, petitioners compared the declared nature of the League’s order with the facts of British rule. Taking up the ‘political name’ ascribed to them in the mandate system, petitioners tested out the reality and scope of the rights announced in the covenant and in mandate law. The difference between the rights proclaimed and their limited sphere of operation was not only ‘a sign of disjunction proving that the rights are either void or tautological’, as the philosopher Jacques Rancière argued regarding the non-universal subjects of ‘the rights of man’. Rather, that difference worked as a space in which political subjectivities were formed: ‘political names are litigious names, names whose extension and comprehension are uncertain and which open for that reason the space of a test or verification’. Building cases for verification, petitioners confronted ‘inscriptions of rights’ with ‘situations of denial; they put together the world where those rights are valid and the world where they are not’. ‘Putting together’ a world of rights and one of rightlessness, petitions capture the League as a forum for international, non-diplomatic politics in which the acquisition and recognition of rights across colonial distributions of power were routinely probed and challenged. In their litigious interpretations, petitioners combined those two worlds together in the fabric of the law, in the knot of syntax, grammar and sense.

ToC: Israel Studies 20.2 (2015); Special Section: Bodies In Question

Israel Studies 20.2 (2015) Table of Contents:

 

Special Section: Bodies In Question

Wars of the Wombs: Struggles Over Abortion Policies in Israel (pp. 1-26)

Rebecca Steinfeld

Halutzah or Beauty Queen? National Images of Women in Early Israeli Society (pp. 27-52)

Julie Grimmeisen

‘Re-orient-ation’: Sport and the Transformation of the Jewish Body and Identity (pp. 53-75)

Yotam Hotam

‘Uniting the Nation’s Various Limbs into a National Body’ the Jerusalem People’s House (pp. 76-109)

Esther Grabiner

 

Articles

The Test of Maritime Sovereignty: The Establishment of the Zim National Shipping Company and the Purchase of the Kedmah, 1945–1952 (pp. 110-134)

Kobi Cohen-Hattab

Budgeting for Ultra-Orthodox Education—The Failure of Ultra-Orthodox Politics, 1996–2006 (pp. 135-162)

Hadar Lipshits

The Mizrahi Sociolect in Israel: Origins and Development (pp. 163-182)

Yehudit Henshke

Review Essay: The Theoretical Normalization of Israel in International Relations(pp. 183-189)

[Reviews  of: The Political Psychology of Israeli Prime Ministers: When Hard-Liners Opt for Peace, by Yael S. Aronoff; Why Hawks Become Doves: Shimon Peres and Foreign Policy Change in Israel by Guy Ziv]

Brent E. Sasley

 

Notes on Contributors (pp. 190-191)

Guidelines for Contributors (pp. 192-194)

ToC: Israel Studies Review 30.1 (2015)

 

 

Israel Studies Review, Volume 30, Issue 1, Table of Contents:

Editors’ Note

Editors’ Note
pp. v-vii(3)

Articles

Mapai’s Bolshevist Image: A Critical Analysis
pp. 1-19(19)
Bareli, Avi

 
Men and Boys: Representations of Israeli Combat Soldiers in the Media
pp. 66-85(20)
Israeli, Zipi; Rosman-Stollman, Elisheva
 

Review Essay

Book Reviews

Book Reviews
pp. 144-163(20)

 

New Article: Confino, History and Memory in Israel after 1948

Confino, Alon. “The Warm Sand of the Coast of Tantura: History and Memory in Israel after 1948.” History and Memory 27.1 (2015): 43-82.

 

URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2979/histmemo.27.1.43

 

 

Abstract

On May 23, 1948, Jewish forces occupied the Palestinian village of Tantura, expelled all its residents, and on June 13 a group of young Zionists settled in the village to build a new kibbutz in the nascent State of Israel, Nahsholim. What happened in the following weeks, years and decades to the several hundred houses of Tantura and their narrow alleys, to the village school, and to the makeshift cafés on the beach, where Tanturians used to sit on hot summer evenings caressed by the cool breeze from the Mediterranean? How did the Israeli Jews engage with and transform the coast they now inhabited, and how did they remember its past and construct its new present? I tell this story via five aerial photos of the coast from 1946, 1952, 1957, 1966, and 1976.

 

New Article: Foster, The 1915 Locust Attack in Syria and Palestine

Foster, Zachary J. “The 1915 Locust Attack in Syria and Palestine and its Role in the Famine During the First World War.” Middle Eastern Studies 51.3 (2015): 370-94.

 

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00263206.2014.976624

 

Abstract

The famine that befell Syria during the First World War was among the most tragic events in the region’s modern history. The article argues that the 1915 locust attack, which is often neglected altogether or given terse treatment as one among a laundry list of causes of the famine, was a critical factor which drove many across the region, especially in Lebanon and Palestine, to starvation beginning in late 1915. Given that the scale of the attack was far worse than anything Syria had witnessed in many decades, if not centuries; and that a huge percentage of the region’s major foodstuffs and sources of livelihood, including fruits, vegetables, legumes, fodder and a small but not insignificant amount of cereals, were devoured by the locusts, it is suggested that many of the 100,00–200,000 people that died from starvation or starvation-related diseases in the year immediately following the attack – that is, from November 1915 to November 1916 – can be attributed to the locust invasion.

New Article: Safran, Haifa al-Jadida

Safran, Yair. “Haifa al-Jadida: The Surrounding Walls and the City Quarters.” Middle Eastern Studies 51.3 (2015): 452-61.

 

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00263206.2014.976623

 

Abstract

`Haifa al-Jadida` (New Haifa) was erected in 1761 by order of the Bedouin ruler Daher el-Omar, governor of the Galilee. As part of the process of building the city, a wall was constructed to encircle it, with a tower overlooking it from above. After its establishment the ‘New Haifa’ became the urban core for the emergence of modern Haifa while the new city was gradually solidified and its characteristic outlines were moulded. From the end of the Ottoman period in 1918 until 1948, the urban expanse remained practically unchanged. In 1948 ‘New Haifa’ was almost destroyed except for the few ruins that were left. In spite of the centrality of the new city in the history of Haifa, very little is known about this area. This article reconstructs the image of ‘New Haifa’ by portraying the location of the city walls and the urban expanse. For the purpose of reconstruction, an 1841 sketch of the city is superimposed on an aerial photographmap of the area taken in 2008, and a map of the old city dated to 1937.

New Article: Kohn and Cohen-Hattab, Tourism Posters in the Yishuv Era

Kohn, Ayelet and Kobi Cohen-Hattab. “Tourism Posters in the Yishuv Era: Between Zionist Ideology and Commercial Language.” Journal of Israeli History (early view; online first).

 

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13531042.2015.1005858

 

Abstract

This study examines the complex national messages conveyed, both verbally and visually, in Zionist commercial advertisement posters produced in the Yishuv during the 1930s and 1940s. It focuses on posters promoting tourism and vacationing in Palestine, representing the growing perception of the country as an attractive destination for modern tourism that is not only religiously motivated. The posters are examined as historical documents that shed light on the ways in which the foundations of tourism in the country were laid and imbued with ideological meaning through the verbal and visual language of the posters. The article seeks to contribute to the study of Zionist visual culture in the Yishuv era by employing an interdisciplinary approach that combines textual-linguistic and contextual-historical analysis.

Book Talk: Ziv, Why Hawks become Doves (AmericanU, Feb 5, 2015)

“Why Hawks become Doves” – Free book talk at American University

Thursday, February 5, 4:00-5:30PM

Free with RSVP: http://www.american.edu/cas/israelstudies/rsvp

 

Doves

The second talk in CIS Author’s New Book Discussion Series features Why Hawks become Doves: Shimon Peres and Foreign Policy Change in Israel by AU School of International Service  Professor Guy Ziv. Co-sponsored by the Center for Israel Studies and the School of International Service.  Location: Abramson Family Founders Room, SIS Building. Pre-paid parking is available in the School for International Service garage and Katzen Arts Center garage (campus map here).  For more information please contact Laura Cutler, cutler@american.edu  

New Book: Ziv, Why Hawks Become Doves

Ziv, Guy. Why Hawks Become Doves: Shimon Peres and Foreign Policy Change in Israel. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2014. 

 

Doves

 

URL: http://www.sunypress.edu/p-5944-why-hawks-become-doves.aspx

 

Abstract

Why do hawkish leaders change course to pursue dovish policies? In Why Hawks Become Doves, Guy Ziv argues that conventional international relations theory is inadequate for explaining these momentous foreign policy shifts, because it underestimates the importance of leaders and their personalities. Applying insights from cognitive psychology, Ziv argues that decision-makers’ cognitive structure—specifically, their levels of cognitive openness and complexity—is a critical causal variable in determining their propensity to revise their beliefs and pursue new policies. To illustrate his point, he examines Israeli statesman Shimon Peres. Beginning his political career as a tough-minded security hawk, Peres emerged as one of the Middle East’s foremost champions of Israeli-Palestinian peacemaking. Drawing on a vast range of sources, including interviews with Peres and dozens of other political elites, archival research, biographies, and memoirs, Ziv finds that Peres’s highly open and complex cognitive structure facilitated a quicker and more profound dovish shift on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict than his less cognitively open and complex rivals.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments

1. Introduction: An Individual Level Explanation of Foreign Policy Change

2. Assessing Cognitive Structure: A Comparison of Four Israeli Prime Ministers

3. Peres: The Hawkish Years (1953–1977)

4. Peres’s Dovish Turn, Phase I (1977–1987)

5. Pere’s Dovish Turn, Phase II (1987–1997)

6. Conclusion

Notes
Bibliography
Index

New Book: Lammfromm, Levi Eshkol: A Political Biography (in Hebrew)

למפרום, ארנון. לוי אשכול: ביוגרפיה פוליטית 1944-1969. תל אביב: רסלינג, 2014.

 

Lemfrom

URL: http://www.resling.co.il/book.asp?series_id=&book_id=809

 

Arnon Lammfromm’s book presents the politics of Levi Eshkol (1895-1969), one of the founding figures of modern Israel, who led its economic growth as its Minister of the Treasury (1952-1963). As Prime Minister (1963-1969) he led the country while facing complex challenges, such as overcoming the Arab threat which reached its peak in the Six Day War, as well as adjusting the economy to changing needs through the steps of austerity. Eshkol had to step into the big shoes of Ben-Gurion, confront and overcome him. He also succeeded, for the first time in Israeli history, to sign a formal and secret memorandum with the United States which served as one of the foundations of the military victory in 1967.

Lammfromm’s main argument is that Eshkol built his career as a “bureaucratic” leader who specializes in many areas, but not as a “charismatic” leader (drawing on Max Weber’s terminology), since his rhetorical abilities were limited. As long as he made use of his capabilities as a bureaucratic leader he was able to compensate for his charismatic weaknesses. But since 1966 he diminished his use of his bureaucratic abilities, increasing his political weakness, and eventually costing him the defense ministry on the eve of the Six Day War.

 

 

 

Bibliography: Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook bibliography on Zionism and Israel (2014)

Bibliography: Zionism and Israel. Published in the Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 59 (2014): 460-466.

57203. Alroey, Gur: “Zionism without Zion”? Territorialist Ideology and the Zionist Movement, 1882–1956. [In]: Jewish Social Studies, Vol. 18(1), 2013. Pp. 1–32

57204. Al-Salim, Farid: Key to three crises: The Ha’avara Agreement, Jewish immigration, and the Peel Plan of Partition of Palestine. [In]: Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 37(1), 2013. Pp. 86–102

57205. Armborst-Weihs, Kerstin: The Formation of the Jewish National Movement Through Transnational Exchange: Zionism in Europe up to the First World War. [In]: Europäische Geschichte Online. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0159–2011080820 (07.08.2014)

57206. Ashkenazi, Ofer: The Biramschule in Context – The »German« Influence on Jewish Body Culture in Mandate Palestine. [In]: Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für deutsche Geschichte, Vol. 41, 2013 (Issue title: Deutsche(s) in Palästina und Israel. Alltag, Kultur, Politik. Ed. by José Brunner). Pp. 17–39

57207. Behar, Moshe; Benite, Zvi Ben-Dor (eds.): Modern Middle Eastern Jewish Thought: Writings on Identity, Politics, and Culture, 1893–1958. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2013. XXXIX, 257 pp., ISBN 978-1-58465-884-9 / 978-1-58465-885-6 [Reviewed by: Orit Bashkin, on: https://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=41227 (22.05.2014). Incl. i. a.: European Zionism and the Arabs and Jews in Palestine]

57208. Ben-Ari, Nitsa: Hebrew Translations of German Classics – Attraction and Aversion. [In]: Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für deutsche Geschichte, Vol. 41, 2013 (Issue title: Deutsche(s) in Palästina und Israel. Alltag, Kultur, Politik. Ed. by José Brunner). Pp. 129–142

57209. BERGMANN, ERNST DAVID. Orchin, Milton; Fenichel, Henry; Jensen, William B.: Scientist in the Service of Israel. The Life and Times of Ernst David Bergmann (1903–1975). Jerusalem: Hebrew University Magnes Press, 2011. XVIII, 374 pp., ISBN 978-965-493-580-7 [“This is the first book-length study of the life and career of the Israeli chemist Ernst David Bergmann. It traces his birth and education in Germany; his decision, after the rise of Hitler, to immigrate to Palestine rather than to accept a position at Oxford; and his intimate 18-year association with Chaim Weizmann – not only as his closest scientific associate but also as Scientific Director of both the Sieff Institute and of the Weizmann Institute …”]

57210. BERGNER, ELISABETH. Feinberg, Anat: »Von Gott begnadete Schauspielerin«: Elisabeth Bergner in Israel. [In]: Aschkenas, Vol. 21(1–2) (2011), 2013. Pp. 229–246

57211. BIRNBAUM, NATHAN. Olson, Jess: Nathan Birnbaum and Jewish Modernity: Architect of Zionism, Yiddishism, and Orthodoxy. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2013, 408 pp. (Stanford Studies in Jewish History and Culture), ISBN 978-0-8047-7873-2 [Reviewed by: Kerstin Armborst-Weihs, in: Medaon, No. 14, 2013. http://www.medaon.de/rezension.html (06.05.2014)]

––. BUBER, MARTIN. Wolf, Siegbert: Martin Bubers Konzeption der Binationalität (2012). See No. 55784

––. Buber, Martin: Zwei Völker in Palästina (1947). See No. 55784

57212. DUBNOW, SIMON. Jilek, Grit: Nation ohne Territorium. Über die Organisierung der jüdischen Diaspora bei Simon Dubnow. Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2013. 524 pp. (Schriftenreihe der Sektion Politische Theorien und Ideengeschichte in der Deutschen Vereinigung für Politische Wissenschaft, Vol. 24), ISBN 978-3-8329-7738-2

57213. Edelmann-Ohler, Eva: Sprache des Krieges. Deutungen des Ersten Weltkriegs in zionistischer Publizistik und Literatur (1914–1918). Zürich: ETH Zürich, 2013. 306 pp., illus. (ETH Zürich Diss. No. 20986)

57214. Eiff, Hansjörg: Die jüdische Heimstätte in Palästina in der Außenpolitik der Weimarer Republik. [In]: Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft, Vol. 61(12), 2013. Pp. 1005–1028

57215. Gechtman, Roni: Nationalising the Bund? Zionist historiography and the Jewish labour movement. [In]: East European Jewish Affairs, Vol. 43(3), 2013. Pp. 249–264 [Abstract: This article examines the academic historiography on the Jewish Workers’ Bund produced by Israeli and Zionist scholars. While the contribution of Israeli scholars to the historiography on the Bund has been significant in both quantity and quality, their works have had to grapple with the tension between the goals of Zionist historiography and the Bund’s political and ideological commitments, namely the party’s radical opposition to nationalism in general and to Zionism in particular. To various degrees, Israeli scholars sought to “nationalise” the Yiddish-speaking labour movement in Eastern Europe and incorporate it into a coherent narrative of the Jews’ past as an “organic” nation. As a result of their authors’ ideological and methodological preconceptions, and by portraying it as a nationalist movement, these works often misrepresent the Bund’s ideas, policies and activities.]

––. Graur, Mina: Anarchismus und Zionismus. Die Debatte über den jüdischen Nationalismus (2008). See No. 55784

57216. Grill, Tobias: Antizionistische jüdische Bewegungen. [In]: Europäische Geschichte Online. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0159–2011081886 (07.08.2014)

57217. GRONEMANN, SAMMY. Kühne, Jan: “Wer ist wer?!”. Sammy Gronemanns Jakob und Christian. [In]: PaRDeS. Zeitschrift der Vereinigung für Jüdische Studien, Vol. 19, 2013 (Issue title: Galut Sepharad in Aschkenas: Sepharden im deutschsprachigen Kulturraum). Pp. 191–206 [http://opus.kobv.de/ubp/volltexte/2013/6527/ (04.09.2013)]

57218. Grüner, Frank; Hohler, Susanne: Offener Brief der zionistischen Jugendorganisation Betar an den Nationalrat der Jüdischen Gemeinden im Fernen Osten vom 25. Januar 1939. [In]: Medaon, No. 14, 2013. http://www.medaon.de/articles.html#artikel308

57219. Harpaz, Nathan: Zionist Architecture and Town Planning: The Building of Tel Aviv (1919–1929). West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 2013. xi, 277 pp., illus., ISBN 9781557536730

57220. Hermann, Tamar S.: Zionism and Palestinian Nationalism: Possibilities of Recognition. [In]: Israel Studies, Vol. 18(2), 2013 (Special Issue: Shared Narratives – A Palestinian-Israeli Dialogue). Pp. 133–147

57221. Herrmann, Manja: “[B]eide zu einem harmonischen Ganzen verschmolzen”: Particularism, Universalism, and the Hybrid Jewish Nation in Early German Zionist Discourse. [In]: Medaon, No. 14, 2013. http://www.medaon.de/articles.html#artikel323

––. HERZL, THEODOR. Ben-Ami: Herzl and the First Congress. See No. 56248

57222. HESS, MOSES; PINSKER, LEON; RÜLF, MORITZ. Schoeps, Julius H.: Pioneers of Zionism: Hess, Pinsker, Rülf. Messianism, Settlement Policy, and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Translated by Margaret-Ann Schellenberg. Berlin [et al.]: de Gruyter, 2013. 158 pp., illus., ISBN 978-3-11-031458-8 [Reviewed by: Philipp von Wussow, in: Medaon, No. 14, 2013. http://www.medaon.de/rezension.html (06.05.2014)]

––. Hessing, Jakob: Germanistik in Israel. Aspekte einer Trauerarbeit. See No. 57755

57223. Jessen, Caroline: Bücher als Dinge. Funktionen emigrierter Bücher und Büchersammlungen für deutsch-jüdische Einwanderer in Palästina/Israel nach 1933 aus Perspektive der Kanonforschung. [In]: Exilforschung, Vol. 29, 2011. Pp. 12–27

57224. Jessen, Caroline: Das problematische Bild der geretteten Kultur – Büchersammlungen deutsch-jüdischer Einwanderer in Israel. [In]: Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für deutsche Geschichte, Vol. 41, 2013 (Issue title: Deutsche(s) in Palästina und Israel. Alltag, Kultur, Politik. Ed. by José Brunner). Pp. 179

57225. Jessen, Caroline: Spuren deutsch-jüdischer Geschichte. Erschließung und Erforschung von Nachlässen und Sammlungen in Israel. [In]: Der Archivar, Vol. 66(3), 2013. Pp. 328–331

57226. Kraft, Christian: Die Synagogen Binjan Zion und Chorew – Der Konflikt zweier deutscher Einwanderergemeinden in Jerusalem. [In]: Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für deutsche Geschichte, Vol. 41, 2013 (Issue title: Deutsche(s) in Palästina und Israel. Alltag, Kultur, Politik. Ed. by José Brunner). Pp. 97–126

57227. Kühne, Jan: Das Ende einer jüdischen Welttournee – Sammy Gronemann und die zionistische »Rückkehr in die Geschichte«. [In]: Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für deutsche Geschichte, Vol. 41, 2013 (Issue title: Deutsche(s) in Palästina und Israel. Alltag, Kultur, Politik. Ed. by José Brunner). Pp. 143–160

57228. LASKER-SCHÜLER, ELSE; WILHELM, KURT. Kohler, George Y.: »Platzmachen für Gott« – Else Lasker-Schüler, Rabbiner Kurt Wilhelm und der religiöse Liberalismus in Palästina. [In]: Aschkenas, Vol. 21(1–2) (2011), 2013. Pp. 179–199

57229. Liebermann, Guido: La psychanalyse en Palestine 1918–1948. Aux origines du mouvement analytique israélien. Préface de Elisabeth Roudinesco. Paris: Campagne Première, 2012. 318 pp., ISBN 978-2-915789-53-9 [Incl. i. a.: L’arrivée des psychanalystes autrichiens en Palestine (1938); Traduire Freud en hébreu; Freud en Eretz Israël]

57230. Litt, Stefan: Zeugnisse deutsch-jüdischer Kulturgeschichte – Der Erwerb deutschsprachiger Privatnachlässe für die Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem 1934–1971. [In]: Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für deutsche Geschichte, Vol. 41, 2013 (Issue title: Deutsche(s) in Palästina und Israel. Alltag, Kultur, Politik. Ed. by José Brunner). Pp. 195–212

––. Luden, Josef: Israel: Zionismus & Anarchismus (1985). See No. 55784

57231. Maier-Wolthausen, Clemens: Eine unmögliche Reise. Ein Brief der Kinder- und Jugendalija in Schweden von 1940. [In]: Medaon, No. 14, 2013. http://www.medaon.de/articles.html#artikel308

57232. Maksymiak, Małgorzata A.: Untergangs- und Aufgangsprobleme der [sic] jüdischen Homo Europaeus. Zur zionistischen Kritik an Spenglers Geschichtsphilosophie. [In]: Zaur Gasimov; Carl Antonius Lemke Duque (Hrsg.): Oswald Spengler als europäisches Phänomen. Der Transfer der Kultur- und Geschichtsmorphologie im Europa der Zwischenkriegszeit 1919–1939. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 2013 (Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Europäische Geschichte Mainz, Abteilung für Universalgeschichte, Beiheft 99), ISBN 978-3-525-10126-1. Pp. 299–322

57233. Maksymiak, Malgorzata Anna: “Ezer Ke-Negdo” in Zionism: The Cases of Gerda Luft and Gabriele Tergit. [In]: Medaon, No. 14, 2013. http://www.medaon.de/articles.html#artikel323

57234. Maoz, Moshe: The Zionist/Jewish and Palestinian/Arab National Movements: The Question of Legitimacy – A Comparative Observation. [In]: Israel Studies, Vol. 18(2), 2013 (Special Issue: Shared Narratives – A Palestinian-Israeli Dialogue). Pp. 30–40

57235. Marzano, Arturo: Visiting British Palestine: Zionist travelers to Eretz Israel. [In]: Quest. Issues in Contemporary Jewish History, Vol. 4(6), 2013. http://www.quest-cdecjournal.it/index.php (03.03.2014)

57236. Michaels, Jennifer: An Unusual Traveler: Ida Pfeiffer’s Visit to the Holy Land in 1842. [In]: Quest. Issues in Contemporary Jewish History, Vol. 4(6), 2013. http://www.quest-cdecjournal.it/index.php (03.03.2014)

57237. Miron, Guy: Exile, Diaspora and the Promised Land: Jewish Future Images in Nazi Dominated Europe. [In]: Pál Hatos; Attila Novák (eds.): Between Minority and Majority: Hungarian and Jewish/Israeli Ethnical and Cultural Experiences in Recent Centuries. Budapest: Balassi Inst., 2013. Pp. 147–166

57238. Miskin, Edgar: Illegal Journey: From the Holocaust to Palestine in 1946. New York: Devora, 2013. 314 pp., ISBN 9789655241273

57239. MÜLLER-COHEN, ANITTA. Hecht, Dieter J.: Biographien jüdischer Frauen: Anitta Müller-Cohen (1890–1962). Sozialarbeit und Zionismus zwischen Wien und Tel Aviv. [In]: Medaon, No. 14, 2013. http://www.medaon.de/miscellaneous.html#artikel301

57240. Nemtsov, Jascha: Doppelt vertrieben: Deutsch-jüdische Komponisten aus dem östlichen Europa in Palästina/Israel. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2013. 336 pp., illus., music (Jüdische Musik, Vol. 11), ISBN 978-3-447-06975-5

57241. Nittenberg, Joanna; Kaufmann, Benjamin (eds.): Trotz allem … Aron Menczer und die Jugendalijah. Wien: Edition INW, 2013. 191 pp., illus., ISBN 9783950035667 [Aron Menczer, b. 18. 04. 1917 Vienna, d. 7. 10. 1943 KZ Auschwitz-Birkenau]

57242. Or, Galia Bar; Minten-Jung, Nicole; Möller, Werner; Yasky, Yuval; Lehmann, Katja; Sonder, Ines; Oswalt, Philipp: Kibbuz und Bauhaus. Pioniere des Kollektivs. Leipzig: Spector Books, 2012. 144 S., ISBN 978-3940064448 [Reviewed by: Alexandra Klei, in: Medaon, No. 14, 2013. http://www.medaon.de/rezension.html (06.05.2014)]

57243. Oswalt, Philipp (ed.): bauhaus. Zeitschrift der Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau, Ausgabe 2: Israel, November 2011. 152 pp., ISBN 978-3940064295 [Reviewed by: Alexandra Klei, in: Medaon, No. 14, 2013. http://www.medaon.de/rezension.html (06.05.2014)]

57244. Patek, Artur: Jews on Route to Palestine 1934–1944. Sketches from the History of Aliyah Bet. Clandestine Jewish Immigration. Krakow: Jagiellonian University Press, 2012. 220 pp., ISBN 978-83-233-3390-6 [Reviewed by: Farid Al-Salim, in: American Historical Review, Vol. 119(3), 2014. Pp. 1022]

57245. Peiffer, Lorenz; Zimmermann, Moshe (eds.): Sport als Element des Kulturtransfers. Jüdische Sportler zwischen NS-Deutschland und Palästina. Göttingen: Wallstein, 2013. 249 pp., illus., ISBN 978-3-8353-1234-0 [Vorwort (Lorenz Peiffer; Moshe Zimmermann, 7–8); Einleitung (Lorenz Peiffer; Moshe Zimmermann, 9–13); Die Einsamkeit des Langstreckenläufers. Deutsch-jüdische Athleten und die Entstehung einer zionistischen (trans)nationalen Kultur (Ofer Ashkenazi, 14–48); Arthur Biram und die Einführung des Turnunterrichts in Erez Israel (Ofer Ashkenazi; Eyal Gertmann, 49–72); Die Beteiligung jüdischer Sportler aus Deutschland an der II. Makkabiah 1935 in Tel Aviv (Henry Wahlig, 73–98); Im Schatten antisemitischer Diskriminierung und Verfolgung. Sportliche Begegnungen zwischen jüdischen Mannschaften aus Nazideutschland und Erez Israel im Jahre 1937 (Eyal Gertmann; Lorenz Peiffer, 99–134); Zwischen Diaspora und Erez Israel – Fußball als Element des Kulturtransfers (Moshe Zimmermann, 135–146); »Im Turnunterricht ist ganz neu, daß man möglichst hebräische Kommandos gebrauchen möchte.« Die Veränderung des Turnunterrichts an den jüdischen Schulen im nationalsozialistischen Deutschland (Lorenz Peiffer; Nadine Werner, 147–168); Schulsport in Palästina von 1933 bis 1938 – im Spiegel von Berichten in deutsch-jüdischen Zeitungen (Lorenz Peiffer; Nadine Werner, 169–172); Dokumention. Einführung und Kommentierung der Dokumente (Ofer Ashkenazi; Eyal Gertmann; Henry Wahlig, 175–184); Dokumente: 1. Transfer von Sportarten nach Erez Israel (185); 2. Vereinsentwicklung in Erez Israel (193); 3. Jüdische Sportlerinnen und Sportler aus Deutschland bei der Makkabiah 1935 (200); 4. Sportreisen jüdischer Mannschaften nach Erez Israel nach Nazideutschland (234); 5. Sport in Palästina in den 1920er Jahren (245)]

57246. Poppe, Judith: Zwischen »unauffindbarem Gestern« und dem »Himmel voll Zuversicht«? Konzeptionen der Alten und der Neuen Heimat bei deutschsprachigen Schriftsteller/innen Israels. [In]: Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für deutsche Geschichte, Vol. 41, 2013 (Issue title: Deutsche(s) in Palästina und Israel. Alltag, Kultur, Politik. Ed. by José Brunner). Pp. 161–178

––. Popper, Hans: Die freie organisierte Gemeinschaft des jüdischen Yishuv (Einwohnerschaft) in Palästina (1949). See No. 55784

57247. Rautenberg-Alianov, Viola: Schlagsahne oder Shemen-Öl? Deutsch-jüdische Hausfrauen und ihre Küche in Palästina 1936–1940. [In]: Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für deutsche Geschichte, Vol. 41, 2013 (Issue title: Deutsche(s) in Palästina und Israel. Alltag, Kultur, Politik. Ed. by José Brunner). Pp. 82–96

57248. Rodov, Ilia: “With Eyes towards Zion:” Visions of the Holy Land in Romanian Synagogues. [In]: Quest. Issues in Contemporary Jewish History, Vol. 4(6), 2013. http://www.quest-cdecjournal.it/index.php (03.03.2014)

57249. Rokem, Na’ama: Prosaic Conditions: Heinrich Heine and the Spaces of Zionist Literature. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2013. XXI, 221 pp., ISBN 978-0-8101-2867-5 [Reviewed by: Allison Schachter, on: http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showpdf.php?id=42229 (19.08.2014)]

57250. Sebba-Elran, Tsafi: From Sefer Ha’aggadah to the Jewish Bookcase: Dynamics of a Cultural Change. [In]: Jewish Studies Quarterly, Vol. 20(3), 2013. Pp. 272–295 [The manifest popularity of H. N. Bialik and Y. H. Ravnitzky’s Sefer Ha’aggadah, its influence on the educational curriculum in the Yishuv and later in the State of Israel and the various languages into which it is translated all bear witness to the formative role of this book through the years in the construction of modern cultural memory … Only Sefer Ha’aggadah acquired such an influence that it became known as “the New Torah” of the Jews. This article seeks to understand and explain Bialik and Ravnitzky’s unique success in light of their literary innovations and cultural vision and to examine how they used their literary tools to bridge the historical and ideological gap between rabbinic tradition and the Jewish thought of their time … Like the romantic philosophers Herder and Schlegel, and apparently following Ahad Ha’am, Bialik and Ravnitzky related to Jewish myth and particularly to the aggadah as a national cultural heritage …]

57251. Sela-Sheffy, Rakefet: »Europeans in the Levant« Revisited – German Jewish Immigrants in 1930s Palestine and the Question of Culture Retention. [In]: Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für deutsche Geschichte, Vol. 41, 2013 (Issue title: Deutsche(s) in Palästina und Israel. Alltag, Kultur, Politik. Ed. by José Brunner). Pp. 40–59

57252. Selzer, Assaf: The History of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Vol. 4: Who’s Who Prior to Statehood: Founders, Designers, Pioneers. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 2013. 405 pp., ISBN 978-965-493-691-0

––. Shapiro, Alexander: Internationale Probleme. Palästina, England und die jüdische Frage (1930). See No. 55784

57253. Sheffi, Na’ama; Meilinger, Liliane: Vom Deutschen ins Hebräische. Übersetzungen aus dem Deutschen im Jüdischen Palästina 1882–1948. Translated by Liliane Meilinger. With a preface by Shulamit Volkov. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2011. 219 pp. (Jüdische Religion, Geschichte und Kultur, Vol. 14), ISBN 978-3-525-56938-2

57254. Shindler, Colin: The origins of Zionism. [In]: Joel Peters and David Newman (eds.): The Routledge Handbook on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. London [et. al.]: Routledge, 2013. ISBN 978-0-415-77862-6 / 978-0-203-07955-3. Pp. 11–19

57255. Shumsky, Dimitry: Leon Pinsker and “Autoemancipation!”: A Reevaluation. [In]: Jewish Social Studies, Vol. 18(1), 2013. Pp. 34–62

57256. Shumsky, Dimitry: Zweisprachigkeit und binationale Idee. Der Prager Zionismus 1900–1930. Transl. from the Hebrew by Dafna Mach. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2013. 336 pp. (Schriften des Simon-Dubnow-Instituts, Vol. 14), ISBN 978-352-53695-5-5 / 978-3-647-36955-6 (online resource) [Reviewed by: Martha Stellmacher. in: PaRDeS. Zeitschrift der Vereinigung für Jüdische Studien, Vol. 20, 2014. Pp. 175–176; Romy Langeheine, on: http://hsozkult.geschichte.hu-berlin.de/rezensionen/2014–2–188 (20.06.2014). “Die deutsche Übersetzung von Dimitry Shumskys 2005 an der Universität Haifa entstandener geschichtswissenschaftlicher Dissertation, die 2010 erstmalig auf Hebräisch erschien, macht nun auch der deutschen Leserschaft eine innovative Studie zum Prager Zionismus und den Anfängen der binationalen Idee als Lösungsmöglichkeit des jüdisch-arabischen Konflikts in Palästina zugänglich. Dieser Lösungsansatz wurde insbesondere von Mitgliedern des 1925 in Jerusalem gegründeten Intellektuellenzirkels Brith Schalom verfolgt, die bereits zu dieser Zeit auf die Dringlichkeit der Aussöhnung zwischen Juden und Arabern hinwiesen und verschiedene politische Programme dazu ausarbeiteten …”]

57257. Siegemund, Anja: Eine Bürgergesellschaft für den Jischuw – Deutsche liberalnationale Zionisten in Palästina. [In]: Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für deutsche Geschichte, Vol. 41, 2013 (Issue title: Deutsche(s) in Palästina und Israel. Alltag, Kultur, Politik. Ed. by José Brunner). Pp. 60–81

57258. Sonder, Ines: “Das wollten wir. Ein neues Land …” Deutsche Zionistinnen als Pionierinnen in Palästina, 1897–1933. [In]: Medaon, No. 14, 2013. http://www.medaon.de/articles.html#artikel323

57259. Stahl, Neta: Other and Brother: Jesus in the 20th-Century Jewish Literary Landscape. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. 248 pp., ISBN 978-0-19-976000-8 [Reviewed by Adele Reinhartz, on: https://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=3D39833 (25.01.2014). Incl. i. a.: The positive appropriation of Jesus by Zionist authors like Uri Zvi Greenberg (1896–1981), Yoel Hoffman (b. 1937), Avot Yeshurun (1904–1992), and others]

––. THEILHABER, FELIX ARON. Heuer, Renate: Eroberung des neuen Judentums für Israel – Felix Aron Theilhaber. See No. 57014

––. Vago, Raphael: Israel-Diaspora Relations: Mutual Images, Expectation, Frustrations. See No. 56189

57260. Vogt, Stefan: Neue Forschungen zum deutschsprachigen Zionismus. Einleitung in den Schwerpunkt. [In]: Medaon, No. 14, 2013. http://www.medaon.de/articles.html#artikel323

57261. Vogt, Stefan: Vertraute Feinde. Zionisten und Konservative Revolutionäre in der Weimarer Republik. [In]: Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft, Vol. 61(9), 2013. Pp. 713–732

57262. Wendehorst, Stephan E. C.: British Jewry, Zionism and the Jewish State 1936–1956. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. XIV, 422 pp. (Oxford Historical Monographs), ISBN 978-0-1992-6530-5 [Reviewed by: Colin Shindler, in: Medaon, No. 14, 2013. http://www.medaon.de/rezension.html (06.05.2014). “Stephan E. C. Wendehorst explores the relationship between British Jewry and Zionism from 1936 to 1956, a crucial period in modern Jewish history encompassing both the shoah and the establishment of the State of Israel …” (provided by the publisher)]

57263. Wilhelm, Karin; Gust, Kerstin (eds.): Neue Städte für einen neuen Staat. Die städtebauliche Erfindung des modernen Israel und der Wiederaufbau in der BRD. Eine Annäherung. Bielefeld: transcript, 2013. 348 pp., illus. (Urban Studies), ISBN 978-3-8376-2204-1 [Incl. i. a.: Neue Städte für einen neuen Staat. Die städtebauliche Erfindung des modernen Israel und der Wiederaufbau in der BRD. Eine Annäherung (Karin Wilhelm; Kerstin Gust, 9–22); Deutsch-jüdische Identitäten in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts (Andreas Nachama; Julius H. Schoeps, 25–33); Edgar Salin – Aspekte seines Lebens und Denkens (Anton Föllmi, 34–45); »Urbanität« in Zeiten der Krise: Der Basler Arbeitsrappen (Korinna Schönhärl, 46–63); » … Träume, die verwirklicht werden … « Salins Suche nach Urbanität (Karin Wilhelm, 64–79); Edgar Salin und das Israel Economic and Sociological Research Project (IESRP). Facetten einer Annäherung (Joachim Trezib, 80–94); Die Erfindung des modernen Israel und der Sharon-Plan. Betrachtungen über ein Unbehagen (Zvi Efrat, 95–111); Konzepte der Initiativplanung in den ersten Jahren des Staates Israel (Ruth Kark, 112–125); Planung einer »Heimstatt« für die Nation (Rachel Kallus, 126–1947); Städtebau und architektonische Kultur als Faktoren der israelischen Identitätspolitik nach 1948 (Anna Minta, 141–154); Edgar Salins Konzeption des modernen Kapitalismus. Von Marx, Sombart und Weber zu einer europäischen Perspektive für die Globalisierung (Bertram Schefold, 209–227); Zwischen Humanismus und Nationalismus. Die Rezeption völkisch-nationalen Denkens im deutschsprachigen Zionismus (Stefan Vogt, 228–236); Siedlung und Landvolk. Die agrarpolitischen Annäherungen zwischen Edgar Salin und der »Sering-Schule« (Willi Oberkrome, 237–251); Nachklänge völkisch-romantischer Naturaneignung? Von der Jugendbewegung des Kaiserreiches bis zur Umweltgeschichtsschreibung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn, 252–267); Zum Kulturdiskurs der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in den Jahren des Wiederaufbaus (Axel Schildt, 268–278); Die Kontroverse um Reparationen in Israel (Yaakov Sharett, 279–288); Von Deutschen, Juden und Projektionen. Zum deutsch-israelischen Verhältnis in der Nachkriegszeit (Moshe Zuckermann, 289–304); Kurzbiografien Autoren (337–344). Reviewed by: Alexandra Klei, in: Medaon, No. 14, 2013. http://www.medaon.de/rezension.html (06.05.2014); Ines Sonder, on: http://hsozkult.geschichte.hu-berlin.de/rezensionen/2014–1–203 (21.03.2014). “Im Zentrum steht die Initiative des aus Frankfurt am Main gebürtigen und seit 1927 in Basel lehrenden Nationalökonomen Edgar Salin (1892–1974). Im Rahmen der List-Gesellschaft … koordinierte Salin zwischen 1957 und 1968 das “Israel Economic and Sociological Research Project” (IESRP), kurz “Israel Research Project” genannt.”]

57264. WOLFFSOHN, DAVID. Meybohm, Ivonne: David Wolffsohn: Aufsteiger, Grenzgänger, Mediator. Eine biographische Annäherung an die Geschichte der frühen Zionistischen Organisation (1897–1914). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2013. 384 pp. (Jüdische Religion, Geschichte und Kultur, Vol. 17), ISBN 978-3-525-57028-9 [Reviewed by: Kerstin Armborst-Weihs, in: Medaon, No. 14, 2013. http://www.medaon.de/rezension.html (06.05.2014)]

57265. Zalashik, Rakefet: Das unselige Erbe. Die Geschichte der Psychiatrie in Palästina und Israel. Frankfurt a. M.: Campus, 2012. 214 pp., ISBN 978-3-593-39361-2 [Reviewed by: Jutta Faehndrich, on: http://hsozkult.geschichte.hu-berlin.de/rezensionen/2013–3–109 (02.09.2013). “Das erste Heim für psychisch Kranke wurde Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts von philanthropischen Ehefrauen oder Töchtern führender Zionisten gegründet. Die 1895 in Jerusalem von Chaya Tzipora Pines, Rosa Feinstein und Ita Yellin gegründete Anstalt Ezrat Nashim (Frauenhilfe) blieb über 25 Jahre lang die einzige, die psychisch Kranke aufnahm. Allerdings wurde dort erst 1920 der erste ausgebildete Psychiater eingestellt, der aus Galizien stammende Dorian Feigenbaum, der bei Sigmund Freud und Emil Kraepelin studiert hatte …”]

 

New Article: Bar-Joseph and Yossef, Strategic Decision-Making and Operational Intelligence in the 1973 War

Bar-Joseph, Uri and Amr Yossef. “The Hidden Factors that Turned the Tide: Strategic Decision-Making and Operational Intelligence in the 1973 War.” Journal of Strategic Studies 37.4 (2014): 584-608.

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01402390.2014.920255

Abstract

This article analyzes the quality of the Egyptian and Israeli intelligence advice and decision-making process in the October 1973 War as key factors that determined its course. Following a background to the subject, we focus on the 9–13 October standstill stage, in which Sadat decided, despite his generals’ advice, to renew the Egyptian offensive. Effective Israeli intelligence collection about the coming attack, which was well used by the decision-makers, saved Israel from accepting an undesired ceasefire. The result was the 14 October failed Egyptian offensive that turned the tide of the war and led to Israeli military achievements at the war’s final stage.

New Article: Wolf, Peacemaking and Political Survival in Sadat’s Egypt

Wolf, Albert B. “Peacemaking and Political Survival in Sadat’s Egypt.” Middle East Policy 21.2 (2014): 127-39.

 

URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mepo.12076/abstract

 

 

Excerpt

By May 1980, the peace process served as the opposition’s focal point for action against the regime. The Lawyers’ Syndicate joined the opposition and helped groups coordinate with one another. By summer 1981, these forces joined the other syndicates in the country to oppose the treaty with Israel. The opposition cited the Knesset’s passage of a law making Jerusalem the indivisible capital of Israel and the Begin government’s attacks on the PLO in Lebanon as evidence that Sadat had abandoned the Palestinians and was helping to promote Israeli aggression.

The regime’s continued support for normalizing relations with Israel contributed to the outbreak of the protests known as the Autumn of Fury. By September 1981, nearly 1,500 of Sadat’s critics, including the Coptic pope, the supreme guide of the Muslim Brotherhood, and the brother of the man who would murder Sadat, were arrested. Khalid al-Islambouli and three fellow Islamic fundamentalists assassinated Sadat on October 6, 1981, during a military parade commemorating the October War of 1973. Al-Islambouli later said that he was primarily motivated by the signing of the Camp David accords and the Egypt-Israel treaty of 1979.

[…]

This piece provides a first cut into the political consequences for non-democratic leaders pursuing cooperation with enduring rivals: they risk their political survival. Autocracies often use foreign antagonisms as a means to legitimate their rule. When longstanding conflicts are resolved, domestic challengers are provided with a focal point for organizing against the regime and presenting themselves as a patriotic alternative to the incumbent. Ensuing protests threaten to unseat the nominal leadership by unleashing a secondary bandwagon of opposition movements, or by promoting a coup or revolution. In Egypt, peacemaking with Israel led to the Autumn of Fury and the assassination of Anwar Sadat.

This piece indicates a few additional avenues for future research. To what extent are the paper’s results generalizable beyond the Middle East and the Arab-Israeli dispute? Do the domestic pressures examined here give dictators a bargaining advantage with their rivals (as arguments on hands-tying suggest), or do they make dictators seem unreliable and untrustworthy, especially when bargaining over objects that affect the future balance of power. A third direction to investigate is whether these domestic pressures increase the credibility of secret diplomacy. Dictators who are likely to be punished for pursuing cooperation send a costly signal of their benign intent when they “go private” or pursue secret diplomacy with an enemy. When they talk to an adversary behind closed doors, dictators are putting their domestic political survival in the enemy’s hands. If he chooses to make the content of the negotiations public, it could destroy the dictator’s hold on power.

New Article: Stanciu, Romania and the Six Day War

Stanciu, Cezar. “Romania and the Six Day War.” Middle Eastern Studies 50.5 (2014): 775-95.

 

 

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00263206.2014.913575

 

 

Abstract

In June 1967, when the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact partners decided to break off diplomatic relations with Israel following the outbreak of the Six Day War, it came as a surprise to many that Romania refused to do the same. This paper investigates previously unpublished documents in order to retrace the decision-making process in Bucharest and offer a rational answer to the question: why did Romania choose to ignore Moscow’s decision? Was it a demonstration of support for Israel as it appeared at the time and, if so, what were the reasons behind it? Archival insight demonstrates that Romania’s decision to maintain diplomatic relations with Israel can best be understood in the general framework of its relations with Moscow. Striving to gain autonomy in the Communist bloc and fight off Soviet domination, Romanian decision-makers preferred to engage in their own analysis of the events in the Middle East before assuming one decision or another. Their conclusions led them to believe that Moscow’s policy had been adventurous and to break relations with Israel would have implied confirmation and reinforcement of Moscow’s role in the Middle East.

New Article: Kaplan, Jewish-Arab Relations in Israeli Freemasonry

Kaplan, Danny. “Jewish-Arab Relations in Israeli Freemasonry: Between Civil Society and Nationalism.” Middle East Journal 68.3 (2014): 385-401.

 

URL: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/the_middle_east_journal/v068/68.3.kaplan.html

 

Abstract

This article applies ethnographic methods and historical analysis to explore Jewish-Arab relations within Israeli Freemasonry. The article tracks local Masonic history as the fraternity developed from individual lodges under colonial-like obediences in late Ottoman and Mandate-era Palestine into a national-level organization, under the Grand Lodge of the State of Israel. In light of an official position of political noninvolvement, Jewish and Arab-Palestinian members conveyed shared values of universal fraternity, but variable interpretations of citizenship and nationalism.

New Article: Behar and Benite, The Possibility of Modern Middle Eastern Jewish Thought

Behar, Moshe and Zvi Ben-Dor Benite. “The Possibility of Modern Middle Eastern Jewish Thought.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 41.1 (2014): 43-61.

 

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13530194.2014.878506

 

Abstract

While the vast scholarly fields of modern Jewish thought and modern Jewish intellectual history effectively include no texts by Jews who are of non-European origin, the domain of modern Middle Eastern intellectual history includes no writings by native Middle Eastern Jews. Aiming to help remedy this dual void, this article presents the core premises and argumentation of several pre-1936 Middle Eastern Jewish intellectuals. In filling in some of the contours and details of this rich—but significantly underexplored—history, it posits that a distinct Jewish intellectual school that unambiguously understood itself to be quintessentially Middle Eastern has been present since the beginning of European Zionism in the late nineteenth century. What contemporary scholars commonly recognise as post-1970s Mizrahi (Eastern) thought is thus better understood as an outgrowth of a Middle Eastern Jewish intellectual formation predating 1948.

New Book: Hart, Jews and Arabs in Jaffa and Tel-Aviv, 1881-1930 (in Hebrew)

Hart, Rachel. Distant Relatives. Jewish-Arab Relations in Jaffa and Tel Aviv, 1881-1930. Tel Aviv: Resling, 2014 (in Hebrew).

971301URL: http://www.resling.co.il/book.asp?series_id=3&book_id=755

הרט, רחל. קרובים-רחוקים. יחסי יהודים וערבים ביפו ובתל אביב, 1881- 1930. תל אביב: רסלינג, 2014.

הספר קרובים-רחוקים עוסק ביישוב היהודי כנושא ראשי וביישוב הערבי כנושא משני מבחינת מערכת היחסים ביניהם. במרכזו של הספר סוגיות שלא נחקרו עד כה והוא נועד להאיר פרקים בקורות היהודים והערבים ביפו ובתל אביב, פרקים אשר נעלמו מאתנו או שידיעותינו לגביהם מקוטעות ומעורפלות. הספר מנתח את המרכיבים השונים של הדואליות ביחסים הכלכליים, החברתיים והתרבותיים בין שתי הקהילות, יחסי תלות הדדיים מצד אחד והתבדלות והתארגנות קהילתית מצד שני. מניתוח זה עולה הבעייתיות של יחסי שכנות בתוך עיר אחת (יפו) ובין שתי ערים (תל אביב ויפו) במסגרת מכלול היחסים בין שני עמים השרויים במצב של תחרות אשר מתגבשת עם הזמן לעימות לאומי כולל.

מעקב אחר ההתפתחות והדינמיקה של מערכות היחסים בין יהודים וערבים ביפו, ולאחר מכן בתל אביב ויפו, מאפשרת להבין את מערכת היחסים הסבוכה בין שתי הקהילות ושני העמים. הספר בוחן את הדו-קיום היהודי-ערבי ביפו; בהקשר הזה נידונה השאלה עד כמה הצליחו המהגרים היהודים להשתלב בחייהם של התושבים הערבים בעיר, ואם בכלל שאפו להשתלב באוכלוסייה זו או שמא כל מבוקשם היה להתבדל משכניהם הערבים, בין בשל המחויבות האידיאולוגית שהביאו עמם לארץ ובין בשל המציאות התחרותית, תנאי החיים והעוינות שהתפתחו ביפו ובארץ-ישראל כולה.

ההיסטוריה והגיאוגרפיה של יפו ושל תל אביב הן ללא ספק פריזמה אשר מבעדה אפשר לבחון את היחסים בין הפרויקט הציוני לבין האוכלוסייה הערבית והיהודית הילידית של ארץ-ישראל. הן יוצרות מיקרו-קוסמוס של הנושאים והתהליכים הגדולים יותר שהגדירו את היחסים התוך-קהילתיים והבין-קהילתיים בארץ-ישראל במאות ה- 19 וה- 20.

ד”ר רחל הרט – ילידת העיר תל אביב, נצר למשפחה יפואית ותיקה משנת 1817 – היא בעלת תואר שלישי מאוניברסיטת חיפה ופוסט-דוקטורט מאוניברסיטת פריז 8. עמיתת מחקר במרכז דיין (אוניברסיטת תל אביב) ובאוניברסיטת פריז 8.

This book is a revision of the author’s dissertation:

The dissertation is concerned with the Jewish community’s socioeconomic, cultural and political attitudes towards the Arab community in Jaffa and Tel Aviv between 1881 and 1930. It focuses on the Jewish community (Yishuv) as the main topic, with the Arab
community as a secondary topic. One of the reasons for this emphasis is the unfortunate destruction of the Jaffa Municipality archives by fire and the loss of additional archival materials during the Jewish occupation of Jaffa in April 1948. This focus is predominantly shared by the available literature on the history of the Jewish settlement in Palestine.

The period between 1881 and 1930 was a significant one in the history of the Jewish community in Jaffa, and in the relationship between it and the Arab community in Jaffa and Tel Aviv. The dissertation breaks this period into four sub-periods:

1881-1905: In the history of the Yishuv this is the First Immigration
Period (Aliyah Rishona), signifying the very beginning of Zionist settlement in Palestine under the Ottoman rule.

1906-1914: In the history of the Yishuv this is the Second Immigration Period (Aliyah Shniya) (1904-1914), beginning with the establishment of the Jewish neighborhood Ahuzat Bayit and ending with the outbreak of World War I that would spell the end of Ottoman rule in Palestine.

1915-1923: In the history of the Yishuv this is the Third Immigration Period (Aliyah Shlishit) of 1919-1923. This period covers the First World War (1914-1918) and ends after the Arab Riots of 1921. It marks the beginning of Tel-Aviv’s accelerated development on the one hand, and the process of its breakup with Jaffa on the other. Politically speaking, it marks the beginning of British rule in Palestine.

1924-1930: In the history of the Yishuv, this is the Fourth Immigration Period (Aliyah Revi’it). This period ends after Arab Riots of 1929, which led to the almost complete disconnection of Tel Aviv from Jaffa. Politically, it this is the period of the British Mandate of Palestine. Jews were living in Jaffa already at the first half of the 19th century. In
1888 and 1890, the two first formally Jewish neighborhoods were founded: Neve Zedeq and Neve Shalom, providing a new demographic dimension to the Jewish community in Jaffa. Many of these neighborhoods’ residents were Ottoman subjects, members of the old Jewish community in Palestine. They mingled with the local Arabs, spoke their language and adopted some of their customs, including clothing. With the advent of the First Immigration Period, Jewish merchants from Turkey and North Africa joined the growing community. Their social and commercial relations with their Arab neighbors were correct, and they even cooperated in their effort to protect their economic rights in their dealings with the Ottoman authorities. The Arabs in Palestine played an important role in the assimilation of the new Jewish immigrants – albeit unintentionally – by building houses and stores occupied by the latter. Given these facts, it would be perfectly justified to call this period the Golden Age of Jewish-Arab coexistence in Palestine, despite early signs of economic competition between the communities.

Signs of Arab opposition to the Zionist aspiration of creating a Jewish Homeland in Palestine based on historical and religious attachments could already be identified in the 1880’s. They claimed that Palestine was sacred Islamic territory, and that Muslims have exclusive rights thereto. Indeed, the struggle over Palestine grew more severe following
the Young Turk Revolution in 1908.

The Jewish immigrations to Palestine introduced new social groups and ideological attitudes seeking to change the status quo. The mostly European immigrants wanted to run their lives according to Western habits and ideas. Some of them were nationals of European powers, with special privileges protected by these countries’ representatives in
Palestine, and were thus relatively independent of the local Ottoman bureaucracy. Quite a few immigrants also had considerable assets or sourced of income abroad, and therefore did not really need to maintain frequent contacts with the local Arabs.

Nevertheless, the Second Immigration Period caused a housing shortage among the Jewish residents of Jaffa. The high rents and poor sanitary conditions also made life difficult for the new immigrants. In order to find a solution for this problem, an assembly of Jews was convened on July 5, 1906 in the Yeshurun Club, at the behest of Akiva Arye Weiss, whereupon it was decided to found the Homebuilders in Jaffa Association – later renamed Ahuzat Bayit (literally, “Home Estate”) – with the objective of building a modern Jewish residential quarter near Jaffa that would be independent of the Arab town. This
new neighborhood would later become the future Tel Aviv.

During the first immigration periods, Jews maintained daily contacts with Arabs. Arab workers were employed by Jews, and Jews shopped in Arab stores and lived as tenants in Arab homes. Sometimes it seemed that the two communities manage to coexist despite profound religious, political, cultural and socioeconomic differences. In time, these differences deepened the rift between the communities, substituting suspicion and hatred for peaceful coexistence. This process was not helped by the alienated attitude of the Ottoman regime towards the local population, and matters came to a head in the bloody riots in Jaffa in the Purim Holiday of 1908, following the Young Turk Revolution. These riots increased the local threat against the Jewish community in Jaffa. Another factor which deepened discord between the two communities was the campaign led by immigrants of the Second Period to “take over labor” (Kibbush Ha’avoda), although many Arabs could still find jobs in the Jewish communities. The gradual growth of the Jewish society in Palestine was thus viewed in increasingly negative terms by the Arabs, not least because of a third
factor – the new lifestyle imported by the immigrants, which many Arabs perceived as provocative, if not a cultural threat.

The new Jewish neighborhood of Tel Aviv was nothing like the old style of mixed residence the Arabs had become used to. They viewed Tel Aviv as a competitive district threatening Jaffa’s demographic, cultural, economic and national preeminence in Palestine. Together
with the continued growth of the Jewish community in Jaffa, the establishment of the new Jewish neighborhood exacerbated tensions and hostilities, which gained in force with the awakening of Arab nationalism in Palestine.

The Arab Riots of 1908, 1921, 1924 and 1929, which took place in Jaffa and the surrounding area, deepened the rift between Jewish Tel Aviv and Arab Jaffa. Naturally, peaceful, mutually beneficial contacts between the two communities were most intensive in the mixed neighborhoods along the ethnic divide. These were also the places were
inter-community strife reached crisis levels. However, the increased geographic separation meant that Tel Aviv residents had to contact local Arabs only for business purposes. Indeed, at first, the new neighborhood was completely dependent on Arab suppliers and merchants. However, following the Arab Riots and Economic Boycott, the Jews in Tel Aviv found other arrangements. During the Third and Fourth Immigration Periods, the Jewish population of Tel Aviv grew considerably, also due to Jews moving there from Jaffa. The Jewish community in Jaffa became ever smaller, turning the ancient town into a commercial center of gradually decreasing importance for the Jewish population.

The dissertation examines the relationships between the two communities in Jaffa, at a time when it was perhaps the most important center of cultural and political life of both the Arab and Jewish inhabitants of Palestine. It looks into the nature and dynamics of Jewish-Arab relations in Jaffa from the socioeconomic, cultural, political, and security perspectives. In doing so, it attempts to pinpoint the dualistic nature of neighborly relations between two increasingly hostile ethnic groups within a single city (Jaffa) and between two cities (Jaffa and Tel Aviv) within the framework of a relationship between two peoples competing for and later fighting over Palestine. It examines the duality in the socioeconomic and cultural relations between the two communities and the dynamics of its development.

The study focuses on the question of Jewish-Arab coexistence in Jaffa. It questions how well the Jewish immigrants managed to integrate in the lives of the Arab city dwellers, and also whether there was any wish to do so, whether due to their ideological commitment to an
increasingly isolationist Zionist movement or to a gradually developing reality of competition and hostility in Jaffa and in Palestine as a whole.

[from: http://bucerius.haifa.ac.il/hart.html]

ToC: Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, 8.1

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