Bismuth, Christine, Bernd Hansjürgens, and Ira Yaari. “Technologies, Incentives and Cost Recovery: Is There an Israeli Role Model?” In Society – Water – Technology. A Critical Appraisal of Major Water Engineering Projects (ed. Reinhard F. Hüttl et al.; Cham: Springer, 2016): 253-75.
This chapter focuses on water policy reforms and the introduction of a new water pricing policy in Israel. These reforms have to be seen in combination with measures to extend the available water sources that have been introduced in Israel in recent years. The effects of the Israeli demand and supply management policy on the use and availability of the water resources is investigated, and the potential transferability of the Israeli experiences to other countries in the region is examined. We also discuss the contribution of the water policy reforms as part of possible options and alternatives to the planned RSDS Conveyance Project.
Ward, Frank A., and Nir Becker. “Economic Cost of Water Deliveries for Peace and the Environment in Israel: An Integrated Water Resources Management Approach.” Water Resources Research (early view; online first).
This paper presents a framework for discovering an economically viable water sharing plan among neighboring communities for promoting peace and environmental protection. Its application is to the Middle East in which Israel may be facing water supply obligations to address environmental requirements and for a possible a peace agreement with its Palestinian neighbors. The framework consists of integrating external factors, constraints, policy instruments, and targets. Our findings from a constrained optimization analysis of Israel’s national water system show that the costs of increased deliveries are dependent on two major issues: (1) achieving integrated water resources management (IWRM) in which efficient combinations of expansion from several supply sources and reductions in demands occur over time, and (2) the cost of desalination technologies. We identify a $US 1.46 billion price tag, in present value terms, from using integrated management of demand reduction and supply expansion under current desalination costs. Adjustment costs will decline both with anticipated reductions in desalination costs and with an efficient implementation of IWRM. These adjustments can contribute to moderating regional tensions and protecting key ecological assets while addressing water scarcity in a volatile corner of the world.
Federbush, Marjorie S. and Jerome C. Muys. “Israel and Water-(What’s Next for the) ‘Turn around Nation’: How Israel’s Leadership in Advanced Water Technologies Can Enhance Global Economic Growth and Diplomatic Relations.” American Foreign Policy Interests 34.6 (2012): 309-21.
In less than a decade, Israel has turned around from a perennially water-stressed society, facing serious challenges from climate change, drought, and depletion of water resources, to a technologically savvy innovator of advanced water technologies and management techniques. Having developed the systems, strategies, and technologies to successfully address its own water shortages, Israel now has moved aggressively to engage with other countries as they struggle with their own water deficits. Not only are developing economies seeking access to Israel’s technological know-how in the areas of water technology and management, but policy makers and the business community in developed countries have also taken note. In short, Israel has become a model of economic growth under adverse circumstances. In the process, Israel is increasingly welcomed as a member of the community of nations because of its efforts to promote technology transfer and offer humanitarian assistance to countries facing similar problems. By reaching out to the international community on water-related issues, Israel is creating mechanisms for both global economic growth and diplomatic gains.
When conflictive viewpoints are discursively strengthened, they develop into a ‘conflict discourse’ with a specific discursive structure which perpetuates conflict, like the discursive securitisation of an issue for varying audiences. When they are weakened, however, societal discourse can potentially change so that agreement becomes possible again, thus achieving discursive conflict transformation. This article analyses the Israeli and the Palestinian water discourse. On both sides, the dominant discourse structures underscore the conflictive issues regarding the distribution of water between Israelis and Palestinians, thus making communication, let alone negotiation, downright impossible. While Palestinians regard the natural water resources as sufficient in principle and the existing scarcity as entirely politically induced, Israelis perceive the natural water resources as absolutely scarce while receiving major de-securitisation impulses from the possibility of desalination. In the respective (minor) counter-discourses, however, possible starting points for dialogue and conflict resolution are visible.