Edom, Sara, Ram Edur, and Yoram Kroll. “Motives, Expectations and Results of the 2000–2009 M&A Privatization Processes of the Industrial Activity of Israeli Kibbutzim.” Journal of Co-operative Organization and Management (early view; online first).
In the 20th century, almost all of the 350 kibbutzim’s industrial plants were solely owned by the kibbutzim, which were managed like family communal cooperatives. In 2011, almost all of these cooperative-like firms were privatized and started to employ a public type of management. More than 50% of them went public by IPOs or underwent an M&A process. Questioning those who were involved in the above process as well as the details of financial reports before and after the IPO and M&A events, reveal that in contrast to the expectations and incentives, the IPOs and the M&As harmed the profitability of the acquired industrial firms compared with the industrial firms that remained fully owned by the communal cooperatives of the kibbutzim.